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The Decolonization of Egypt
Transcript of The Decolonization of Egypt
The British shared control with the Turkish. The British controlled the Cairo Citadel, which was remodeled by Mohammed Ali in 1830, and the Turkish had control of Cairo.
Ottoman Empire flag that flew over the city of Cairo, until 1826
Mohammad Ali was one of the Turks left in charge. He was an Albanian military commander. He was only thirty three years when he came to Cairo as an officer of the Turkish forces. In 1806, he became pasha of Egypt, the highest ranking officer, with help of the Albanian troops. He became ruler of Egypt for forty three years. He attacked and killed the Mamluks, one of the first to occupy Egypt. He also became pasha of the Ottoman Empire because of the plundering of the city under the old governor.
In 1807, the British attacked Egypt with intentions of restoring Mamluk rule in Egypt. The five thousand Albanian troops under Mohammad Ali captured the British soldiers, sold them into slavery, and some to roam around the city impoverished or thrown into dungeons.
In 1808, Mohammad Ali's successes allowed him to confiscate all Egyptian land as his own. He established a system which involved local government representatives and provincial governors, which lasted until the 1952 Revolutions (abolished constitutional monarchy and established republic).
Some Mamluks were still living and he did not have full control as he wanted. He invited 500 Mamluks to meet him in his palace and when they tried to exit, the doors shut and the Momluks were left to die. He beheaded their ruler, Shahin Bey and killed thousands of other Mamluks.
Mohammad Ali began to modernize Egypt. He built canal systems,
shipyards, factories, and armories. Egyptians began to take interest in eduction and studied abroad.
Europeans began to come to Egypt because of its infamous sites and ancient history. Giovanni Belzoni was the first archaeologist in Egypt, he popularized Cairo. Herbert Salt was British consul in Egypt and he and Belzoni robbed the sites in Egypt.
Part II: The Colonial Period
Jean Baptiste Kleber took charge after Napoleon but feared the Turks and Britain in war.
The Turks ordered for all Christians to be killed. Soon enough, a civil war broke out.
Kleber was assassinated and Jacques Menou
In 1801, Menou was defeated by Sir Ralph Abercromby and the French finally surrendered to the British
British in Egypt
Napoleon tried to westernize and modernize Egypt.
The people of Egypt opposed Napoleon and kept Turks as prisoners,
In 1798, Napoleon sailed with his 40,000 soldiers past to fight off the Mamluks.
Won in the Battle of the Pyramids against the Mamluks,
August 1798 he lost against the British in Battle of the Nile.
Part I: Before Colonization
Part III: After Decolonization
Previous Interim President
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Military Commander who overthrew Morsi
January 2011 Revolutions
Hosni Mubarak's Dictatorship
Freedom of Speech threatened (1996 Press Law)
Women and minorities mistreated and disrespected
February 11:Hosni Mubarak resigns
6 month plan to draft new constitution
February 25: New protests arise against military and government
May 23 2012: Elections begin
June 30: Mohamed Morsi becomes president
December 2012: Protests arise against new constitution and Mohamed Morsi's increase in power.
January 25, 2013: Protests in Tahrir Sq. and spread across Egypt
April 2013: Protest Movement started by young activists called "tamarod" or "rebels"
June 1: Military gives 48 hour warning to Morsi
June 3: Military forces Morsi to resign
Ruled by Sultan Selim of the Ottoman Empire
Egyptian point of view
Speech by President Nasser of the United Arab Republic, September 15, 1956
“This is the stanch feeling of every Egyptian. The whole Arab nation will stand by us in our common fight against aggression and domination. Free peoples, too, people who are really free will stand by us and support us against the forces of tyranny….”
"The Suez Canal Problem", 26 July-22 September 1956, U.S. Department of State Publication No. 6392 (Washington: G.P.O., 1956), pp. 345-351.
-"Tour Egypt :: Egypt: History - Ottoman Turk Period." Egypt: History. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2014.
Egyptians gained their independence on February 22, 1922.
-"Egypt: El-Sissi Wins Election by Landslide." THonline.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2014.
Art was centered around glass, metalwork, woodwork, and textiles.
Lower and Upper Egypt united which marks the beginning of Egyptian civilization
First Dynasty: 3100BC
The Old Kingdom: 2580-2130BC
Practice of mummification begins
First stone pyramid is built at Saqqara during this time under Pharaoh Zoser
Three great pyramids at Giza
The Middle Kingdom: 2000-1630 BC
Middle kingdom is notable for serious efforts to colonize Nubia
skins of leopards
plums of ostriches
only lasted 4 centuries
lasts half a millennium
provides the bulk of the art, artefacts and architecture for which ancient Egypt is famous
"religious discourse is the greatest battle and challenge facing the Egyptian people,”
-"Tour Egypt :: Egypt: History - French Occupation Period." Egypt: History. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2014.
-Neriah, Jacques. "Egyptian Field Marshal Abd El-Fattah El-Sisi." Jerusalem Issue Briefs, n.d. Web.
After the New Kingdom collapsed a series of different people took over and ruled Egypt
January 25, 1952 British attacked Egyptian police after they declined to surrender to them
People in Egypt were angry so they burned British offices, hotels, and cinemas in Cairo
"The Officers Movement", created by Gamal Abder Nasser and Mohamed Naguib who were army generals, made a speech scaring Kink Farouk of treason
Farouk tried leaving but was not able to and had no choice but to give up his throne to his son Fuade II on July 23, 1952
In 1953 Egypt was officially declared a republic
Egyptian monarchy was said to be corrupt and English
King Farouk was blamed for losing the 1948 war against Egypt by the free officers
Goal of revolution was to overthrow King Farouk and his son in order to remove any British influence in the government and to end the monarchy to create a republic in Egypt
Pharaoh Zoser during 3rd dynasty was considered the greatest pharaoh during that time and sometimes his dynasty marks the beginning of the "Old Kingdom".
1882 British Conquest of Egypt
1922 British declare the independence of Egypt
1948-1949 War with Israel in first Arab-Israeli War. Egypt gains control of Gaza strip
December 28 1948, Prime minister Mahmoud an-Nukrashi was assassinated by the Muslim Brotherhood
1952 Egyptian Revolution
1956 War with Israel, Britain, and France in Suez war
1958 Egypt united with Syria to form Untied Arab Republic
1962-1970 Egypt intervened in Yemen Civil War which brought conflict with Saudia Arabia
1967 Six Day War with Israel, Israel gained control of Gaza Strip and and Sinai Peninsula
1977 Egyptian "Bread Riots" against economic reforms
1979 Egypt-Isreal peace treaty for the war since 1948
1979 Egypt is expelled from Arab League for making peace with Israel
Post Muhammad Ali