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Cells and Organells
Transcript of Cells and Organells
The basic unit of life
Types of Cells
Simple and single-celled
Only one organelle -
No Nucleus -DNA free in cytoplasm, as
Outer boundary composed of three layers and may have structures
-similar to plant
Structures -Extra cellular proteins, structures, or specialized functional apparatus
May be single or multi-celled, may be highly specialized
Outer boundary may have
-similar to plant
Fluid mosaic model
the structure of the plasma membrane which describes a hydrophylic phosphorus head and hydrophobic lipid tail.
A model conceived by S.J. Singer and Garth Nicolson in 1972 to describe the structural features of biological membranes.
Cells discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke using a crude microscope with a magnification of about 30x.
Ten years later, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, using a secret technique produce microscopes that could magnify water droplets 300x. He first described Microorganisms which he called "anamacules."
is the jelly-like fluid inside the cell. All of the cell's organelles are held within the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm has structural components called the
The cytoskeleton has three major structural components:
Myosin tracks and
Help with cell division
Support the shape of the cell
The nucleus is the control center of the cell using RNA produced from DNA it signals all of the functions of the cell.
It is composed of three major parts:
Nuclear envelope (membrane)
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is connected to the nuclear membrane. It is "rough" because it has
covering its surface.
In the rough E.R., ribosomes make proteins. These proteins are then packaged in
and transported to the
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is connected to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It is "smooth" because it has no ribosomes covering its surface.
In the smooth E.R., enzymes make lipids (fats) and break-down substances that are toxic to the cell. (recycling)
Ribosomes are very tiny and perform one of the most essential functions for life.
Ribosomes make proteins
. They can be found in the rough E.R. and cytoplasm.
Ribosomes are composed of two subunits, the "large subunit" and the "small Subunit"
The subunits "snap together" with RNA between them. They then move along the RNA molecule assembling amino acids into larger more complex proteins as the go.
The Golgi Apparatus receives vesicles full of proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Inside the Golgi apparatus the proteins are repackaged in vesicles and sent out into the cytoplasm.
This is where kinesin transport proteins are attached to the vesicle.
Vesicles are phospholipid "bubbles" created in the cell to hold or transport materials (water, waste, or proteins)
Vesicles are transported through the cell along microtubules by transport proteins that "walk" the vesicles from one place to another.
Mitochondria are the "powerhouse" of the cell. These organelles produce most of the energy for the cell in the form of
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
. This is done through
It is hypothesized that mitochondria were once separate organisms that were absorbed into early eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria have their own DNA and ribosomes that have a different origin than other cellular organelles.
Mitochondria are composed of an inner membrane, an outer membrane. they are easily recognized by their distinctive folds called
Centrioles are specialized microtubules that help organize the cell for cell division.
Lysosomes are organelles that contain enzymes for digesting broken proteins, food, and cell debris. They are the waste disposal system of the cell.
After the lysosome has destroyed the protein, it joins with with a vacuole to eject the waste outside the cell.
are specialized lysosomes that specialize in breaking down long chain fatty acids.
The cell wall is a tough layer of cellulose that encases the cell outside the plasma membrane. The cell wall allows for water to pressurize the cell to help support the plant.
are very tiny channels through the cell wall that allow for nutrients and larger molecules to pass through the cell wall. .
Vacuoles are enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes. The help maintain the internal pressure for the cell and hold water and nutrients. The are often the largest part of a plant cell.
Chloroplasts capture the sun's energy and produce carbohydrates using a process called
Chloroplasts have a pigment called
which allows the chloroplast to absorb light and help convert light energy into ATP.