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Cells and Organells

Organelle Prezi for Living Environement
by

Jeffrey Mann

on 9 December 2015

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Transcript of Cells and Organells

Cells
The basic unit of life
Eukaryotic Cells
Types of Cells
Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic
Animal
Plant
Bacteria
Organelles
Prokaryotic Cell
Bacteria
Capsule
-slimy coating
Simple and single-celled
Only one organelle -
ribosome
No Nucleus -DNA free in cytoplasm, as
nucleoid
or
plasmid
.
Outer boundary composed of three layers and may have structures
Plasma Membrane
-bilayer
Cell Wall
-similar to plant
Cytoplasm
Structures:
Flagella
Cilia
Pili
Organelles
Eukaryotic Cell
Structures -Extra cellular proteins, structures, or specialized functional apparatus
May be single or multi-celled, may be highly specialized
Many
organelles

True
nucleus
Outer boundary may have
Plasma Membrane
-bi-layer
Cell Wall
-similar to plant
Cytoplasm
Plasma Membrane
Fluid mosaic model
Phospholipid bi-layer
the structure of the plasma membrane which describes a hydrophylic phosphorus head and hydrophobic lipid tail.
A model conceived by S.J. Singer and Garth Nicolson in 1972 to describe the structural features of biological membranes.
Cell History
Cells discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke using a crude microscope with a magnification of about 30x.
Ten years later, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, using a secret technique produce microscopes that could magnify water droplets 300x. He first described Microorganisms which he called "anamacules."
Cytoplasm
The
cytoplasm
is the jelly-like fluid inside the cell. All of the cell's organelles are held within the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm has structural components called the
cytoskeleton
.
The cytoskeleton has three major structural components:
Microtubules
Cellular structure
and transport
Micorfilaments

Myosin tracks and
Help with cell division
Intermediate filaments
Support the shape of the cell
Nucleus
The nucleus is the control center of the cell using RNA produced from DNA it signals all of the functions of the cell.
It is composed of three major parts:
Nuclear envelope (membrane)
Nucleolus (DNA)
Nuclear pores
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is connected to the nuclear membrane. It is "rough" because it has
ribosomes
covering its surface.
In the rough E.R., ribosomes make proteins. These proteins are then packaged in
vesicles
and transported to the
Golgi apparatus
. (production)
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is connected to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It is "smooth" because it has no ribosomes covering its surface.
In the smooth E.R., enzymes make lipids (fats) and break-down substances that are toxic to the cell. (recycling)
Ribosomes
Ribosomes are very tiny and perform one of the most essential functions for life.
Ribosomes make proteins
. They can be found in the rough E.R. and cytoplasm.
Ribosomes are composed of two subunits, the "large subunit" and the "small Subunit"
The subunits "snap together" with RNA between them. They then move along the RNA molecule assembling amino acids into larger more complex proteins as the go.
Golgi Apparatus
The Golgi Apparatus receives vesicles full of proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Inside the Golgi apparatus the proteins are repackaged in vesicles and sent out into the cytoplasm.
This is where kinesin transport proteins are attached to the vesicle.
Vesicles
Vesicles are phospholipid "bubbles" created in the cell to hold or transport materials (water, waste, or proteins)
Vesicles are transported through the cell along microtubules by transport proteins that "walk" the vesicles from one place to another.
Mitochondria
Mitochondria are the "powerhouse" of the cell. These organelles produce most of the energy for the cell in the form of
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
. This is done through
cellular respiration
.
It is hypothesized that mitochondria were once separate organisms that were absorbed into early eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria have their own DNA and ribosomes that have a different origin than other cellular organelles.
Mitochondria are composed of an inner membrane, an outer membrane. they are easily recognized by their distinctive folds called
cristae
.
Centriole
Centrioles are specialized microtubules that help organize the cell for cell division.
Lysosome
Lysosomes are organelles that contain enzymes for digesting broken proteins, food, and cell debris. They are the waste disposal system of the cell.
After the lysosome has destroyed the protein, it joins with with a vacuole to eject the waste outside the cell.
Peroxisomes
are specialized lysosomes that specialize in breaking down long chain fatty acids.
Cell Wall
The cell wall is a tough layer of cellulose that encases the cell outside the plasma membrane. The cell wall allows for water to pressurize the cell to help support the plant.
Plasmodesmata
are very tiny channels through the cell wall that allow for nutrients and larger molecules to pass through the cell wall. .
Vacuole
Vacuoles are enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes. The help maintain the internal pressure for the cell and hold water and nutrients. The are often the largest part of a plant cell.
Chloroplast
Chloroplasts capture the sun's energy and produce carbohydrates using a process called
photosynthesis

Chloroplasts have a pigment called
chlorophyll
which allows the chloroplast to absorb light and help convert light energy into ATP.
Full transcript