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Sub-Saharan Africa during the Cold War
Transcript of Sub-Saharan Africa during the Cold War
Both the United States and the Soviet Union struggled for control in Southern Africa, generally by offering their support strategically to countries in order to keep them from turning to the opposite power.
Some South African countries took advantage of the conflict for personal benefit, such as by siding with one country over the other based on what they would receive in return.
Racism and minority rule governments were common in the region, such as in the case of South Africa. Practices in Somalia Somalia was initially integrated into the Soviet bloc; they signed a friendship and cooperation agreement in 1974.
With Soviet aid, Somalia increased the number of weapons and military in their country.
In 1977, Somalia invaded Ethiopia, which was likewise supported by the Soviet Union.
The Soviets sided with Ethiopia and withdrew support from Somalia, who turned to the United States.
The U.S. and Somalia signed a military agreement in 1980. Practices in Angola The Soviets gave military support to Angola but little to no help in trade.
Three parties rose to power in Angola and started fighting for independence. These were the Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), supported by the Soviets, the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA), supported by the United States, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).
Though these groups initially had an agreement to share power following the separation from Portugal, civil war soon broke out.
UNITA was supported by the U.S. and South Africa, while MPLA also found support from Cuba.
Castro sent Cuban forces to combat South Africans in Angola, and the U.S. refused to offer further support. South Africa withdrew, giving the appearance of a Soviet victory in Angola. Practices in South Africa During this time, South Africa maintained its policy of apartheid, segregation or discrimination based on race.
South Africa was a favored ally of the United States and undertook several anti-Communist policies, such as the 1950 suppression of Communism Act, which formally banned Communist parties and ideologies in South Africa.
The apartheid regime came under heavy criticism from the UN in the 1960s.
South Africa's failure against Cuba in Angola brought an end to its attempts for detente with neighboring African countries. Practices in the Rest of Southern Africa Overall, the United States and the Soviet Union's struggle for control in the region led to conflict and tension.
Angola, Mozambique, Guinea, Somalia, Egypt, the Congo, Ethiopia, Uganda, and Benin all received aid from the Soviet Union. These countries had varying levels of communist ideologies.
The idea of communism was generally popular in the region due to economic hardship, inequality, and corruption. Effects of the Cold War in Sub-Saharan Africa During the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union armed the countries that supported them. After the resolution of tensions, these weapons were then instrumental in later conflicts.
When the U.S. withdrew support from Somalia, the Somali government shortly collapsed.
Landmines from conflicts during the Cold War remain in particular areas, such as Mozambique, Angola, and Namibia.
Political issues and violence in the region following the Cold War contributed to the killing fields of Rwanda, Congo, Sierra Leone, and Liberia in the 1990s.
Apartheid in South Africa ended in the 1990s, partially as a result of sanctions placed on the nation after they became involved with the international community during the Cold War.
African leaders are now "willing to contribute troops to bring about peace" (Holmes). Sources http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/12chapter8.shtml