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Christmas Mass at Notre Dame de Paris AD 1198

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by

Alana Nelson

on 26 January 2015

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Transcript of Christmas Mass at Notre Dame de Paris AD 1198

Leoninus and Perotinus
Medieval Music
Guido of Arezzo: Invented the 4-line musical staff
Invented early solfege (ut, re, mi, fa,
sol, la)
The Setting: Ile de la Cité
The Church
Centralizing power in Europe
Christmas Day at Notre Dame
The Singers
The Music
Music and Ritual
Christmas Mass at Notre Dame de Paris AD 1198
The Seven Liberal Arts
Trivium: Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic
Quadriuvium: Arithmetic, Music, Geometry, Astronomy
The Mass
Mass ordinary:
Kyria, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
Mass Proper:
chant texts change day to day
Antiphonal:
Choir(s) sing in alternation
Guidonian hand
"Queen of the Arts"
Music: the art of number in time
Music of the Spheres
Apollo, the Muses, Planetary Spheres and Musical Ratios
Notre Dame Cathedral
Built between 1160 and 1250
Bishop of Paris
Could hold several thousand people
Medieval Paris
Pop. 200,000 - one of the
largest cities in Europe
Hildegard of Bingen
First female composer whose name is known
German nun
Had visions which led to poor health
Wrote on theology, medicine, botany, lives of the Saints
Musician, painter
1098-1179
Morality Play:
Dramatized allegory of Good v. Evil and the fate of a single soul
Play of Virtues
Clergy responsible for regular services
Cantor: Highest-ranking musical officer
Choir: about 40 men and 8 boys
Possible Gradual used in the year 1198 composed by Perotin
Entire Mass service sung and intoned
Plainchant text-setting
Syllabic:
one note per syllable
Melismatic:
many notes per syllable
Neumatic:
two or three notes per syllable
Liturgy:
complete set of ceremonies and rituals for a worship service
Divine Office ("Office"):
8 services performed through the day in a monastery
Embellishing the Liturgy
Trope:
Interpolated additions to existing chant
Organum:
polyphony where plainchant preserved in lower voices, and the upper voices add embellishments
Cantus Firmus:
pre-existing melody used as a basis for a polyphonic work
Types of Organum
Pure Organum:
one voice sings many notes against one note in the original chant
Discant:
original chant and added upper voice move at same, brisk pace
Léonin
Pérotin
12th-C. Canon and Poet at Notre Dame
Great Book of Organum
Notre Dame polyphony -

1st repertory of polyphonic music attributed to specific composers
12th and early 13th-C. Cleric at Notre Dame
Wrote long, intricate organum
More elaborate than Léonin
Revised
Great Book of Organum
"Alleluia"
14th Century
Age of disintegration :
Hundred Years' War, Black death, weakening of the feudal system, strife within Catholic Church
New system of notation
Syncopation becoming popular
Ars Nova
Poet and Composer
"Machaut Manuscripts"
"Messe de Nostre Dame" = first complete polyphonic setting of the Mass Ordinary
Guillame de Machaut (1300-1377)
Agnus Dei from "Messe de Nostre Dame" by Machaut
Ut Queant laxis
http://www.e-codices.unifr.ch/de/csg/0359
Early 10th C. Manuscript
Full transcript