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EDF1616 Assignment 1

Behaviour modification Rebecca Regan

Rebecca Regan

on 14 October 2012

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Transcript of EDF1616 Assignment 1

BEHAVIOUR CHANGE Rebecca Regan After recently assessing my lifestyle behaviours through the healthy lifestyle questionnaire I noticed that I do not incorporate any flexibility training into my daily routines. This made me want it to research flexibility to find out what it is and what it means to be flexible. Flexibility refers to the amount of motion that is possible at a given joint or series of joints (Corbin et al., 2009). After researching I noticed that there are many forms of flexibility and many factors can influence flexibility from gender to genetics. While researching I came to the conclusion that a reasonable amount of flexibility is needed to perform efficiently and effectively in daily life. After some base line measurements, I decided that flexibility was an area I needed to improve on. Through this project I hope to increase my flexibility in my hamstrings, shoulders, hips and trunk, in order to perform better throughout general exercise and most importantly my daily life. INTRODUCTION SELF
ASSESSMENT Healthy Lifestyle Questionnaire Two Week current exercise log week one Week two Product goal Process goals ONE TWO THREE BARRIERS ANTICIPATED ACTUAL MEASURMENTS PRE POST PROGRAM PLANNING BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION PRE-CONTEMPLATION CONTEMPLATION PREPARATION ACTION MAINTENANCE CONCLUSION REFERENCES When beginning any program or implementing an intervention it is first important to initially gather baseline data. Baseline data is basic information gathered before a program begins. The accurate measurement is critical for determining current levels of physical activity, understanding the dose-response relationship between physical activity and health and determining the effectiveness of intervention programmes designed to improve physical activity (J.R. Sirard, R.R. Pate, 2001). It is important to first gather baseline data in order for me to analysis and evaluate the success of my intervention and behaviour change. In order to first determine the gaps in my lifestyle and identify where change was needed, I took the healthy lifestyle questionnaire. The questionnaire is designed to help analyse your lifestyle behaviours and help to make decisions concerning good health and wellness for the future (Corbin et al., 2009). The questionnaire is a simple 30 question yes/ no answer survey broken into eleven behaviour lifestyle categories. After taking this test I noticed that under the physical activity category I do not perform exercises for flexibility at least 3 days a week. Physical Activity Pyramid After doing a two week diary on my exercise and physical activity, I then decided to take a look at the physical activity pyramid to see if I was meeting recommendations. The physical activity pyramid illustrates how different types of activities contribute to the development of health and physical fitness and is broken up in to five steps (Corbin et al., 2009). Step one; moderate physical activity, step two; vigorous aerobics, step three: vigorous sports and recreation, step four; muscle fitness exercise and step five; flexibility. For physical activity to be effective each type of activity must be done with enough frequency, with enough intensity and for a long enough time this is known as the FIIT formula (Corbin et al., 2009). Each type of activity on the pyramid has its own FIIT formula and distinctive health and wellness benefits. When looking at the physical activity pyramid I noticed that I do not reach the national goal for step five – flexibility of three or more times a week. After taking these two initial steps I decided to asses my own flexibility to compare where I was compared to the standards. If any behaviour or lifestyle change is to be of value you must first determine what you hope to accomplish. Goals are objectives that you hope to accomplish as a result of lifestyle change (Corbin et al., 2009). It is said that most people find better success when using behavioural (process) goals rather than outcome (product) goals. When setting my goals I followed the SMART principle.

S- Specific
A- Attainable
R- Realistic
T – Timely GOALS To achieve above norms for sit and reach, trunk rotation, hip flexor and zipper test for my age group. Research and document the health benefits of flexibility Buy a yoga mat and DVD and perform yoga once a week Beginning this program on my own I knew I would struggle without someone to support and help to motivate me. The ways in which I approached this barrier was getting my mum to participate in the DVD with me and consistently engaging in conversation with a student participating in a similar behaviour change. Lack of support By adding stretching to the end of my work out routines I have now included it as part of my daily habit this was an easy barrier to overcome as adding stretching only add an extra few minutes to my already existing gym routine. Although this worked for 5 out of 7 days a week for the days I was not at gym this became a huge barrier in which I often didn’t perform my stretches on the days I was not at gym. Breaking or changing already existing routine Adding stretching to my daily routine only added a few extra minutes which was easy to address what was not easy to address was having time to perform yoga once a week, even though each program did not go for long on the DVD having the time to be at home with the equipment to perform this became a huge barrier and most likely the reason that this part of my training program was often missed. Time management At the beginning of my program I was motivated to increase my flexibility and found it easy to stick to my program. Heading into week 4 I noticed I started to steer away from my initial program set out, and could not get motivated to either perform the stretches correctly or for a sufficient amount of time (30 sec) in order to increase flexibility Lack of self-motivation PROCESS PRODUCT In order to measure my product goal I intended perform four flexibility tests to measure my flexibility in commonly used joints. The tests I intended to take are a reflection of my base line data collection. The tests included; Modified sit and reach test (flexibility test of hamstrings), Zipper test (shoulder flexibility), Hamstring and hip flexor flexibility and Trunk rotation. By performing these tests both pre and post of my intervention I am able to compare the results and evaluate the success of my program. The limitation with these tests is that studies have shown these tests to have poor criterion-related validity in estimating correct range of flexibility (SS Hui, PY Yuen, 2000). Unfortunately for me these tests are the easiest available to me that will give me a comparison in my range of motion after my intervention is implemented After setting a product goal it is important to set process goals in order to achieve my outcome. In order to measure my process goals I intended to keep an exercise log of the days I perform my stretches and perform yoga to keep track of the frequency. Exercise logs are the easiest and most cost effective way for me to measure these goals. Limitations in this measurement means that I may forget to write the log out and record my results, I may record them wrong or I may even lose my exercise log. After researching the health benefits of flexibility I plan to keep a diary of the health benefits and record if I have experienced any of them. This will be my way of keeping track of the benefits and improvements my body is experiencing. TRAINING PROGRAM In order to prepare for my change; I first had to research particular stretches that would help me achieve my goals. . (Corbin et al., 2009) gives suggested stretches based on particular muscles groups after carefully considering my options I a ranged a stretching training program according to the muscles being tested I my overall tests. As well as preparing my training log, I have gone out and bought a yoga DVD and a yoga mat to perform my stretches on each day. After researching many different yoga DVDs I decided to buy Michelle Merrifield's Yoga Pilates Fusion for Beginners. I choose this series of DVDs as it is a series from beginners to advance this allows me to easily move up a level as my flexibility increases. Now that I have established my programs components, I have decided to write out a weekly training program. (Corbin et al., 2009) states that by putting your plan in writing you help to establish your intentions and increases the chances of adherence. RESULTS I will stretch all of my major muscle groups before and after participating in a cardiovascular or strength workout incorporating 8 stretching exercises 3 times a week. Using methods suggested in Corbin et al., (2009) I decided to measure my flexibility in commonly used joints. The test I took included; Modified sit and reach test (flexibility test of hamstrings), Zipper test (shoulder flexibility), Hamstring and hip flexor flexibility and Trunk rotation. After evaluating and testing my flexibility I noticed that I am under the norms for flexibility for my age group. This is a clear result from not putting in any flexibility training at all in my daily routine. As i had not anticipated going camping during my uni break I did not have a DVD player or my stretching logs with me this meant that for the week I was away I was unable to perform any of my stretches of perform the yoga DVD Camping Starting my new job and often working late nights, it became difficult to juggle work and uni and I often found I did not have free time to perform my stretches Starting a new job Becoming ill with tonsillitis for a week, meant that during the week of being ill I consistently forgot my stretches and often did not feel well enough to do them. Although stretching is not strenuous, feeling ill meant I did not want to move and often slept. Illness Barriers can occur at all levels of the socio- ecological model. Intrapersonal level barriers include lack of self-confidence and motivation, and lack of knowledge about the health benefits (Rees et al., 2006). It is these barriers in which I faced the most. Rees et al., 2006, States that programs aimed to increase awareness, knowledge, skills, motivation, and confidence are best suited to overcoming these types of barriers. Individual (intrapersonal) theories explain health behaviour and behavioural change by focusing on individual factors. To design effective interventions requires an understanding of the role of the individual in physical activity behaviour (Telford, 2006)

The 5 Stages of Change Model is a framework that describes the series of stages an individual goes through to change their lifestyle habits. The main message that underpins this model is that behavioural changes do not happen in one step, but through a series of distinct, predicable stages (Perry, M. 2010)
Understanding the stage of change you’re in is vital in order to help you to succeed. Stages Of Change People in this stage don’t want to make any change to their habits and don’t recognize that they have a problem. They may be pessimistic about their ability to make change, or even deny the negative effects of their existing lifestyle habits. They selectively filter information that helps confirm their decision not to exercise, or eat better (Perry, M. 2010).

As I was already aware that my flexibility was low and that I did not perform enough stretching exercises in my daily routine I did not enter this stage at all, I occasionally did some stretching here and there and knew it was important, however I had never actually solely focused on it or followed a program. Perry. (2010)Describes the contemplation stage as the stage in which individuals are usually weighing the costs (i.e. effort, time, finances) and benefits of lifestyle modification. You are contemplating whether it’s something that will be worth it. People can remain in this stage for years without preparing to take action.
I believe this is the stage I entered this project as I have already begun to think about powerful, motivating goals and visualizing my results. In the first 2 weeks I also began identifying the benefits of flexibility, and how the benefits will begin to outweigh the costs. People in the preparation stage have decided to change their negative habits within one month (Perry, M. 2010).
I believe I finally entered this stage after researching the benefits of flexibility and writing out a stretching program. Once the main outline of my project was set, my attention was turned towards developing certain goals that could help make my project a success. Preparing my program and goals, took a few weeks but I wanted to make sure I had set them out right and followed the smart principle. Specific
• Well defined
• Clear to anyone that has a basic knowledge of the project
• Know if the goal is obtainable and how far away completion is
• Know when it has been achieved
• Reachable goals
• Within the availability of resources, knowledge and time
Time Based
• Enough time to achieve the goal
• Not too much time, which can affect project performance
(SMART Goals, 2006) The action stage is the process of changing your lifestyle. The first steps in a training program can often be the hardest. Once regularly participating in my routine and actively taking part in yoga I believe I entered the action stage. Corbin et al,. (2009), states that often in this stages our barriers appear.After anticipating my most of barrier I was able to avoid a lot of them and find ways to adjust and overcome them. This is the stage of successful, sustained lifestyle modification for over 6 months. As I have not yet been consistently performing my routine for 6 months I cannot say that I have entered this stage. However I intended to follow and adjust my flexibility program in order to one day reach this stage and maintain my flexibility.
Most people tend to bounce between the contemplation, preparation, and action stages. One way to prevent this from occurring is to make small changes in your habits that over time create something meaningful. Maintaining a behaviour and changing a behaviour are two totally different paths that require different approaches. It’s not that difficult to maintain a given level of physical fitness or flexibility just by remaining consistent. However it’s very difficult to prepare and take action to change our bodies. As our bodies are resistant to change, trying to change them takes a MASSIVE effort that requires a substantial commitment, both mental and physical (Perry, M. 2010). After implementing my training program for 10 weeks, my result showed that my program was effective. My results improved on all four of my initial test taken, although some improved better than others I put this down to the type of stretches I put into my program.

According to Corbin et al,. (2011) my results show an improvement on the rating scale. My flexibility has improved from the low zone and marginal zone into the good fitness zone. By continuing my program and making adjustments I could potentially in the future reach the high performance zone if I choose to. A range of behaviour modification theories and models were used throughout this project in order to help me asses, set goals, plan and evaluate my behaviour change.in order to improve my flexibility specific goals and planning were essential. When undertaking any life style change there is always going to be barrier and unexpected turns, preparing for these means you have the tools and knowledge to address them when they arise.
Overall in my 10 week program I was able to achieve an improvement in what I set out to do. Although I was successful my program had many gaps in it, which would need to be addressed for future use. Stretching alone can be quite boring so it is important to find ways to change and adapt your program in order to stick to it.
In future I intended to adjust my program incorporating multiple ways of stretching and join a yoga class rather than watch the DVD, in order enlist in social support and prevent my program form becoming boring.
Flexibility training is one of the key components of a balanced fitness program and should be a part of your exercise routine. Without flexibility training, you are missing an important part of overall health. 1.Corbin, C., Welk, G., Corbin, W., Welk, K. (2011) Concepts of fitness and wellness: A comprehensive lifestyle approach. New York: McGraw-Hill.
2.Amanda Telford (2006) Nelson Physical Education VCE units 3&4, Understanding factors influencing participation in physical activity and the Stages of Change model, 4th edition, Chapter 2 pgs 41-71
3.Perry, M., (2010, June 1). 5 Stages of Change Model: Which Stage Are You In? (Web log article). Retrieved from http://www.builtlean.com/2010/06/01/5-stages-of-change-model-which-stage-are-you-in/
4.SMART Goals. Retrieved from http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/smart-goals.html National Health and Medical Research Council. (2006)

5.Rees, R., Kavanagh, J., Harden, A., Shepherd, J., Brunton, G., Oliver, S., & Oakley, A. (2006). Young people and physical activity: A systematic review matching their views to effective interventions. Health Education Research, 21(6), 806-825.

6.Sirard, J.R., & Pate, R.R.( 2001). Physical activity assessment in children and adolescence. Sports medicine,31(6), 439-454

7.Forsyth,L.A.,( 2009). Chapter seven. In. Marcus, Bess, Forsyth & LeighAnn (Eds.), Using the stages model in individual counselling. Champaign,IL: Human Kinetics

8.Hui, S.S. and Yuen, P.Y. (2000) Validity of the modified back-saver sit and- reach test: a comparison with other protocols. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32, 1655-1659.
When tracking my program it was easy to keep log of which day I performed stretches and which days I didn’t. You can see from the previous tables that I didn’t consistently keep to my program. This is because of the barriers that I encountered as previously mentioned. The table show the gaps in program and suggest that this is not the most effective way and that maybe I should have made adjustments or changes. Today I researched the health benefits I would gain from increasing my flexibility. Flexibility is not the same as stretching; flexibility is a state of being stretching is the primary technique used to improve the state of one’s flexibility. After highlighting my behaviour associated with flexibility I decided to look at the health benefits that come from flexibility and the health benefits I can gain by introducing flexibility exercises into my week routine.

1. Improved Performance, Decreased Injury Risk
2. Reduced Muscle Soreness
3. Improved Posture
4. Reduced Risk of Low Back Pain
5. Increased Blood and Nutrients to Tissues
6. Improved Muscle Coordination
7. Enhanced Enjoyment of Physical Activities Health benefits of flexibility
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