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Discrimination After 9/11
Transcript of Discrimination After 9/11
Bin Laden’s Letter to America
Answers questions: “Why are we fighting and opposing you? ” and “What are we calling you to, and what do we want from you?”
Attacks in Palestine and Somalia;
Support of Russian atrocities in Chechnya, of Indian Oppression of Muslims in Kashmir, and of Jewish aggression in Lebanon
Governments of Islamic countries under American supervision attack their people
take wealth; occupation of Islamic countries; etc.
Tells American people to expect “Jihad” and that attacks against civilians are justified
“America does not understand the language of manners and principles, so we are addressing it using the language it understands.”
Call to Islam; end of oppression , lies, immorality , so on;
stop support of Israel;
leave Islamic lands;
stop support of corrupt leaders History Discrimination and attacks against those who are or are perceived to be
Suspension of equal opportunity employment
Possibility for promotions and progress is stunted
Affects hiring and firing
Attacks against perceived Muslims
Sikh temple shooting
Shows that violence is towards anyone that may seem Muslim or Arab
In the Boston marathon, a Saudi Arabian man was taken in because another bystander claimed he "looked suspicious" History: Discrimination After 9-11, hundreds of Muslims were taken into custody without a trial
Often male, Arab or Muslim noncitizens (not limited to this)
Within a few moths over a 1000 people had been detained
Discrimination and hatred towards Islam as a whole- Negative stereotypes
Threats of Quran burning
Associating acts of extremism to an entire group of people
Assuming that Islam justifies these acts of violence
Association of terrorism to Islam
Stereotypes perpetuated by media
News focuses on crimes committed under the name of Islam
Entertainment often portrays Middle Eastern people under a negative light History Anti-Muslim hate crimes rose by more than 50% between 2003 and 2004.
Discrimination from police rose from 7 to 25% of CAIR (Council on American Islamic Relations) incidents within a year.
After 9/11, anti-Muslim hate violence skyrocketed 1,600%.
Another burst of anti-Islamic sentiment occurred after the ground zero incident: in 2009, there were 107 anti-Muslim hate crimes while in 2010, there were 160. To put this into persepctive, there were 481 anti-Muslim crimes the year of the 9/11 attacks.
Individuals clearly suffer from Islamophobia:
Muslims are also the only major U.S. religious group where less than one-half (39%) say they would be able to make a major purchase if they needed to, as compared to 60% Protestants and 68% Jews.
Far before the recent economic dip, Muslim wages had gone down by 10% according to the University of Illinois and Columbia University, and they have not returned to pre-9/11 levels.
In a 2009 Gallup survey fewer Muslim Americans (65%) reported satisfaction with their standard of living than did the general population (73%).
A 2001 Gallup survey reported that 48% of Muslim Americans said they had personally experienced racial or religious discrimination in the past year. The numbers of U.S. Protestants, Catholics, and Jews who reported the same were about one in five in each of these groups. Nearly 80% of anti-Muslim crime was committed in 10 states (Cali, NY, Arizona, VA, Texas, Forida, Ohio, Maryland, NJ, Illinois).
A Columbia University survey of Muslim students in New York public schools found that 28 percent had been stopped by police as a result of racial profiling.
The NYPD has compiled information on 250 mosques, 12 Islamic schools, 31 Muslim student associations, 263 places it calls “ethnic hotspots,” such as businesses and restaurants, as well as 138 “persons of interest”, according to the Intel documents.
They have also singled out 53 mosques, four Islamic schools and seven Muslim student associations as institutions of “concern.” They have also labeled 42 individuals as top tier “persons of interest.”
Often times, people confuse Sikhs for Muslims because Sikhs were turbans called “saroops”. In the past three years alone, the Sikh Coalition, which aims to promote Sikh identity and interpret the religion for the general public, helped with more than 62 cases of hate crimes, 27 cases of racial profiling, 22 incidents of employment discrimination, and 17 Sikhs facing prosecution for carrying the Kirpan, a ceremonial sword. Statistical Evidence Statistical Evidence Immediate acts of discrimination
Wisconsin Sikh Gurudwara shooting
Personal anecdotes Anecdotal Evidence “My husband is a wonderful man, a Sikh and a physician. He wears a turban. After 9/11 we were afraid to go to work. Some cars followed us. Children yelled "Osama Bin Laden" at us.”-Michelle Zaniewski
"Although countless Muslims have condemned the acts of 9/11 in the United States and worldwide, American Muslims became objects of suspicion" --Sumbul Ali-Karamali, Special to CNN
“At the end — I guess (the agent) was trying to be nice — he said, ‘Sorry, I hope you understand we just have to make sure nothing gets blown up,’” --Shibly, a law school graduate who grew up in Buffalo.
“Are you part of any Islamic tribe? Have you ever studied Islam full time? How many gods do you believe in? How many prophets do you believe in?” --Agent at New York’s JFK Airport - NBC NEWS Quotes Resolution Obviously, there hasn't been one (or a good one) just yet.
Example: attacks on Muslim women after recent bombings
Prevention vs Treatment: Right now, there are some laws and actions the government takes against hate crimes
Ex: CRS (Community Relations Services), established by Civil Rights Act of 1964
However, these are for hate crimes only and do not really address discrimination. Also are done after the fact.
Furthermore: Government limited legally in terms of what it can do because law enforcement does not know if most crimes are hate crimes or just random crimes.
Prevention of hate crimes and prejudiced attitudes is key.
What Already Exists
Hate-Prevention staff training and presentations in some schools
Resource Organizations such as Anti-Defamation League, etc.
Children (and even adults) learn these perceptions from their environment
Influences of environment outweigh those of educational programs and other efforts-->need to improve/change the environment Resolution: Prevention Resolution Three Ways:
Education: Teachers are a key part of a child's forming identity, especially at younger ages.
Government: Training officials who are in the public eye (i.e. making statements for the dept, etc.)
Media: Crucial. News, films as well.