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Copy of CHAPTER 7:

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Karina Rodriguez

on 4 November 2015

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Transcript of Copy of CHAPTER 7:

Chapter Highlights
CHAPTER 7: Commerce & Culture
Silk Roads
Sea Routes
Sand Roads
Ancient Trade Routes
Economics
THE SILK ROADS
TIMELINE
Sea Roads
Sand Roads
Western Africa
Beginnings
Commercial Goods
Sahara
Who founded the Americas?
America a New Network
Western Vs. Eastern Hemisphere trade
Other Trade Factors
Early Civilizations
Cahokia
Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica & Andes Peoples
Connections

Warfare
Vikings
Thorfinn Karlsfeni
Leif Ericsson
Earliest Settlements in NA
Economic Globalization
New States
Self Consumption
Trading Luxury Items
Political Control
India & China
Southeast Asia & East Africa
Mongol
Readings
Doc. 7.1
A Chinese Buddist in India
Doc. 7.2
A European Christian in China
The Growth of Trade Routes...
Inner and Outer Eurasia
Indirect Connections
Goods in Transit
Roles and Cultures - Religion
Exchange of Diseases
Any Questions?
Inca
Record of the Western Region
The Travels of Marco Polo
Indian Ocean

Long Distance Trade Routes
Growth of environmental &
cultural differences
Commercial Network
Transportation- cheaper & heavier
Monsoons
Technology
Economic Exchange
Southeast Asia
East Africa
China & India
Stimulated by Trade
Attractions
Culture
Political Ideas
Empires
Long distance trade
Swahili Civilization
Cultural
Economic
Rise of Islam
PART III: THE BIG PICTURE-DEFINING A MILLENNIUM
I.
How to define the mystery millenium:
A. Between 200-850 CE, many civilizationes were in decline/collapse
B. Columbus' transatlantic voyage around 1500 mark a new period of world history
C. How should we define the period from the end of the classical era to "modernity"
1. No Consensus about this period
a. "postclassical" -little meaning
b. "medieval" Eurocentric and suggests that the period is just an in-between
c. "third world civilizations"
II. 3rd wave Civilizations:Something New, Old, & Blended
A. New Developments, where none existed before (East Africa, Southwest Asia, Kievan Rus)
B. New civilizations borrowed from their predeccessors
c. Most exapansive/influential 3rd wave civ. was Islam
4. Some older civilizations continued (China, Byzantium, India, Niger Valley)
5. Some civilizations were reshaped (Maya-Aztec, Andean cultures-Inca)


III. Transregional Interaction of 3rd wave civilizations
A. Common theme-increase in interaction of the world's people, culture, and regions
B. Accelerated pace of interaction
1. trade: long distance
2. large empires: many cultures under one unit
a. largest empires were created by nomadic peoples
3. large-scale empires and long-distance trade worked together to facilitate the exchange of ideas, germs, technologies, and crops
a. diffusion of religion
b. devasting empidemic diseases (Black Death)
C. Spolight on travelers rather than on those who stayed home
D. How much choice did people have in accepting new ideas?


TRADE
Alters consumption
Encourages specialization
Diminishes self-sufficiency
traders become distinct groups
Social mobility
Wealth=state creation
Spread of ideas, innovations, plants, animals, disease
I. Silk Roads: Exchange Across Eurasia
A. The Growth of Silk Roads
1. Eurasia is divided into inner/outer zones
a. outer: warm, well-watered (China, India, Middle East, Mediterranean)
b. inner: harsher, drier climate; pastoral (Central Asia, Eastern Russia)
c. Steppe products (hides, wool, furs, livestock) were exchanged for agricultural goods
2. Trading networks did best when large states provided security for the trade
a. 7/8th centuries Byzantine Empire, Abbasid and Tang dynasties created a belt of strong states
b. 13/14th centuries Mongol Empire mainly controlled the Silk Road
II. Goods in Transit
1. Mainly luxury goods traveled on the Silk Roads (often by camel)
a. goods for the elite
b. transport was expensive: did not transport staple goods
2. Silk symbolized the Eurasian transit system
a. Initially, China had a monopoly on Silk
b. By the 6th century BCE others produced it
c. Silk was used as currency in some places
d. Women were crucial for silk production
3. Volume of trade was small, but important
a. generated large profits
b. Some peasants gave up farming to produce export products (silk/porcelian/paper)

SUMMARY: What made silk such a highly desired commodity across Asia?
III. Cultures in Transit
1. Cultural transmission was more important than the exchange of goods
2. The case of Buddhism
a. spread along the Silk Roads
b. appealed to merchants
c. voluntary conversion
d. Many central Asian cities became centers of learning and commerce
e. In China, it was the religion of foriegn merchants or rulers for centuries
f. Buddhism was transformed during its spread (Buddha became divine/monastries became ornate)

IV. Disease in Transit
1. The major population centers of the Afro-Eurasian world developed characteristic disease patterns and how to deal with it.
2. Long distance trade= exposure to unfamiliar diseases
a. early case: epidemic in Athens (430-429 BCE)
b. smallpox devasted Roman & Han empires
c. bubonic plague from India devasts Mediterranean world (534-750 CE)
3. Black death spread due to the unification of much of Eurasia by Mongol Empire (1300s)
a. killed 1/3 of Europen popluation between 1346-1350
b. This disease exchange gave Europeans an advantage when they reached the Western Hemishpere
What were the major economic, social, and cultural consequences of Silk Road commerce?
III. Sea Roads: Exchange Across the Indian Ocean
A. The Mediterranean Sea was an avenue for trade since the 1st wave civilizations
1. Linked Europe to Indian Ocean's network
B. Indian Ocean networl was the world's most important until 1500
1. Trade grew from cultural and enviornmental diversity
2. Transportantion was cheaper by sea than land
3. Made transportation of bulk goods possible (textiles, pepper, timber, rice, sugar, wheat)
4. Facilitated by monsoons (wind currents)
5. Commerce was between towns not states
6. China's economy was revitalized during Song/Tang
7. Islam was trader-friendly
Sea Roads: Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia and Srivijava
1. Southeast Asia: between China & India
a. trade stimulated political change
b. Introduction of foreign ideas/religions
c. Malay sailors opened routes through the Straits of Malacca
d. many port cities competed for trade
2. Malay kingdom of Srivijava emerged
a. dominated trade from 670-1025 CE
b. gold, access to spices, and taxes on ships provided resources for state creation
c. adopted Indian political ideas and Buddhism
Sailendras kingdom was also influenced by India
a. massive building of Hindu and Buddhist centers
1. Swahili civilization of East Africa developed from blend of Bantu with commercial life from Indian Ocean (influenced by Islam)
a. demand for their products (ivory, gold, leopard skins, slaves, etc)
b. Merchant class developed
2. Swahili civilizations flourished on East African coast (1000-1500 CE)
a. very urban (cities of 15-18 thousand people)
b. each city ruled by a king
c. sharp class distinctions
3. Deep participation in Indian Ocean world
a. regular visits by Arab and Indian merchants
b. Many ruling families claimed Arab/Indian/Persian origins
c. Widespread conversion to Islam

SUMARY: WHAT FACTORS CONTRIBUTED TO THE FLOURISHING OF INDIAN OCEAN TRADE DURING THE POST-CLASSICAL ERA?
IV. Sand Roads: Exchange Across the Sahara
A. Commercial Beginnings in West Africa
1. Enviornmental variation=different products
a. Sahara-copper, salt, dates
b. North Afica-Manufactured goods
c. Southern Africa-grew crops, mined gold
2. Earliest trade was in the Sudan (agriculture)
a. Urban centers emeged (Jenne-Jeno)


B. Gold, Salt, and Slaves: West Africa

1. Introduction of the camel in early C.E. was a turning point
a. Camels can go 10 days w/o water
b. made it possible to cross the Sahara
2. Trans-Saharan commerce was steady by 300-400 C.E.
3. Merchants wanted gold (and ivory, koala nuts, and slaves)
4. Sahara became a major international trade route
a. huge caravans (up to 5,000 camels)
b. Caravan travel lasted 1,000 years
5. Trade ennew and larger political structures
a. creation of new states between 500-1600 CE (Ghana, Mali, Songhay, etc) All monarchies
b. built a reputation for great riches
6. Slavery was present in West Africa
a. Initially, most slaves were women
b. With the development of civilizations, male slaves used for labor
c. Most slaves came from societies further south
d. about 5,500 slaves transported across the Sahara per year, between 1100-1400 C.E.
V. An American Network
A. No sustained interaction between East/West Hemispheres before Columbus
B. American trade networks were not as dense as Afro-Euro ones
1. Limitations:
a. lack of domisticated animals, wheeled vehicles, and large ships
b. local trade flourished, but not long-distance
c. Cultural traditions did not spread widely
C. "Loosely interactive web" from Great Lakes to Andes
a. Evidence of indirect contact (corn crops)
b. Chaokia was the center of trading network
c. Carribean people traded between islands
d. Amazon and Orinoco river exchange networks
D. Major trade network in Mesoamerica
a. Mayans traded by sea and land
b. Aztecs had professional merhants (pochteca)
E. Major trade network in the Andes
a. Quipos
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