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Haitian Revolution

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Alix Bernier

on 16 May 2013

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Transcript of Haitian Revolution

The Haitian Revolution Background Economic • Voodoo was a widely practiced and discouraged religion.
• Their first revolt leader, Boukman, was also a Voodoo leader.
• Catholicism was forced upon the slaves and those practicing Voodoo.
• Many were forced to accept Catholic values and become members.
• Slaves swore allegiance to religious leaders and Religion. Political 1789 1808 1792 1791 August French Revolution 1790 The French declared that any colonial property owner over the age 25 could vote. However, the administration of Saint-Domingue ruled that the law did not apply to mulattoes or free blacks. Angered and stirred, the voodoo slave priest named Boukman, led an army of 12,000 slaves from Cap-Haitien, torching plantations and slaughtering inhabitants. •First European colony when Columbus was shipwrecked on its shore.
•Named Hispaniola by the Spanish.
•The Spanish colonized the eastern side, whereas the French claimed the eastern (Haitian) side.
•Control of the island given to the French through the Treaty of Ryswick.
•Native Taino Indian people were friendly at first, until the Spanish tried to force slavery upon them.
•Became a wealthy sugar and coffee colony.
•The colony produced 40% of French exports. Classes and Government In November, the French captured Boukman and executed him. They displayed his head publicly in hope to quench the rebellion. Instead it sparked a revolution. 1791 November Religion 1791 The Revolution Begins Free Blacks/ Mulattoes Poor Whites Slaves Whites • Top
• All power in local Government
• Land owners
• Discriminated against Lower classes
• Military Positions
• Slave owners • Ex slaves
• Denied all power but could Purchase land.
• Banned from interracial marriages
• Military Positions
• Slave owners
• Banned from white social gatherings
• Banned from Voting Leadership
L'Ouverture took over command as the new rebel leader when Boukman was killed by the French. He recruited mulattoes as well as slaves to fight in an impressive army.
He was a skilled military strategist who taught his forces guerrilla warfare. This strategy was extremely effective in battles with the French. Though technically still a part of the french empire, L'Ouverture set about to make the colony run independently from France. He worked to promote equality. He took extraordinary measures throughout his military and political life to treat all races equally and fairly, and he even allowed white planters to return to the island. of Toussaint L'Ouverture • The Poor Whites who considered themselves superior to all colored people
• Did not work or have any say in government. • Bottom of the Social class
• Considered sub human
• 90% of population
• Abused, tortured, killed arbitrarily
• Absolutely no rights
• Could be freed by wealthy whites Government http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1998/kretchik-slaves.gif http://www.geographyiq.com/images/ha/Haiti_map.gif •Spanish give power to France in 1697.
• Absolute French Monarchy to Napoleon's Dictatorial rule in 1799.
• Native Haitians and slaves had no vote or rights.
• Salutary Neglect. • Slaves and free blacks had no representation.
• Napoleon reinstated slavery against colonist wishes.
• Attempts to better the treatment of slaves failed.
• Previous French treaties failed.
• Majority of population could not vote.
• Poor whites were denied the same political representation of rich whites. http://media.courierpress.com/media/img/photos/2010/04/05/APTOPIX__Haiti_Voodoo_Reyn_t607.jpg Intellectual • The American and French revolutions inspired and gave the slaves courage.
• The French declared the the rights of man and abolished slavery; however, stated that these rights did not apply to colonists.
• Declared "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression"- except to colonies. By 1792, slaves controlled a third of the island. The success of the slave rebellion caused the newly elected Legislative Assembly in France to realize it was facing an ominous situation. To protect France's economic interests, the Assembly granted civil and political rights to free men of color in the colonies in March 1792. The Assembly was determined to stop the revolt. Apart from granting rights to the free people of color, the Assembly dispatched 6,000 French soldiers to the island. Role and Impact of Foreign Intervention In response to sending troops to Saint-Domigue, the British and the Spanish sent their own troops to attack the
French forces. L'Ouverture led his forces into siding with the British and the Spanish in order to crush the French, and free the slaves. He became a general in the Spanish army. 1793 1794 The Revolution • Slaves could not economically advance, own land or obtain jobs.
• Poor Whites were envious of the success of rich whites.
• Poor whites saw the blacks as economic competition.
• "Exclusif" policy forced colonists to buy and sell only to and from the French. http://www.commodityonline.com/images/15250904055048623f66212.jpg Social • Slaves were outcasts of society.
• Free Blacks were denied access to any and all white events.
• Poor Whites considered themselves superior although they were below both free blacks and rich whites.
• Slaves were raped, publicly tortured, killed and beaten.
•There was no way for slaves or poor whites to rise in social classes. In response to the new alliance,the French army abolished slavery in the colony. In response to this, L'Ouverture joined the French. He was followed fervently by his loyal troops. Under his leadership they fought side by side with the French, driving out the British and the Spanish from the colony. Member Economically, the citizens of Haiti revised the economic system of the conventional plantation and transformed it into a system based on small-scale producers who geared their products internally instead of exporting their goods. Pre-revolution Haiti produced about 40% of the world's sugar. The sugar industry fell apart after the revolution, and as a result, Cuba imported a massive amount of slaves to become the world's next main sugar exporter. Politically, the slaves formed the second independent state in the Western Hemisphere and the first free black nation of former slaves globally. (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr The Haitian Revolution was a unique case in history as the revolution resulted in the complete shift in the social, political, and economic life of the colony. 1795 1796 Socially, the lowest order of society, the slaves, became free and equal to the dominating order of society, the whites. The Effects Spain cedes the eastern 2/3 of the island to France. The French appoint L'Ouverture as lieutenant governor of the island. The revolution of African slaves brought many fears to colonies surrounding Haiti and the Caribbean. Thomas Jefferson was in a somewhat political dilemma; he praised the French Revolution and its ideals but as a slave owner feared a slave revolt . Most US political leaders were slave owners themselves, and therefore provided aid to put down the revolt as a result of fears that slave revolts would spread. Due to these policies and domestic concerns, the US would not officially recognize Haitian independence until 1862. Spain and Britain were also involved against the French. France then ended slavery, and so the revolutionaries then sided with the French. This became somewhat of a war. The French, along with the Haitians, eventually won the war. Later on, Napoleon tried to retake St-Domingue, and fierce fighting took place in which many French soldiers died. As a result, Napoleon could not withstand sustaining control over Louisiana, and so sold it to the US. The French, however, left Haiti with a massive debt that would keep the island nation in a state of poverty for many years to come. The Slave Revolt Independence 1801 L'Ouverture introduced a constitution that defined Haiti as a self governing French possession, and declared himself as governor-general for life. 1802 In January Napoleon invaded the island. Napoleon took L'Ouverture as prisoner in May of 1802, and he was sent to France where he died in prison. 1803 1804 Napoleon declares slavery restored after taking over the island. L'Ouverture's two most trusted Officers: Jean-Jacques Desalines, and Henri Christophe, regrouped their forces and attacked the French. After rebel attacks and a devastating plague of yellow fever, the French are defeated. In October 1804 Desalines proclaimed himself emperor.
He redistributed wealth and instilled a system of compulsory labor. In 1806 he was killed during an uprising. After his death Christophe took control of the country. He created a new governmental system based on the british system. In 1808 the British regained control of the eastern part of the island, reducing it to its current size. At the same time Alexandre Pétion led a successful revolt in the south and established a republic. Christophe was later overthrown in 1820 and Pétion regained control over Haiti. What happened next? On January 1, 1804
The Haitian Act of Independence was signed. Haitian and American Revolutions Both colonies had similar restrictions on economy.Both were influenced by concepts of natural rights.Both lacked representation in government.Both attempted peace with their mother country before independence. The war was not popular in either countries.Similar mercantilism policies from the mother colony. The Haitian revolt was first lead by a religious figure.It was a slave revolt of lower class.American Revolution was of the middle class. http://www.biography.com/people/napoleon-9420291
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