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N5 Human Geography - Rural: Revision
Transcript of N5 Human Geography - Rural: Revision
During Glaciation certain parts of
the U-shaped valley floor were over eroded.
After Glaciation these areas will fill up
with water to create a long-narrow 'ribbon-lake'.
Just like rivers, glaciers have tributaries. As the main glacier erodes deeper into the valley, the tributary is left higher up the steep sides of the glacier. U-shaped valleys ending with a water fall at the cliff-face are called hanging valleys.
Before Glaciation gentle sloping
hill sides sloped down to the river.
These were called 'interlocking spurs'.
During Glaciation the glacier bulldozed through the interlocking spurs. Chopping them off to create steep sided 'truncated spurs'.
As with the other Prezis, this is a tool to use alongside your revision. Use it to remind yourself of a topic before undertaking revision or past paper questions or as a summary after undertaking revision.
You need to use your class notes to effectively revise each topic.
You need to know:
• Detail about the location of each type
• What the landscape looks like
• How each type works; the good and bad aspects of it
• The changes that have been affecting it, and how.
Our Case Studies
Formation of Drumlins
Formation of Drumlins
This type of farming is found throughout SE Asia. Several different types of crops may be grown depending on climatic conditions. Where it is wetter, different varieties of rice tend to be grown, but most important is wet rice. The growing season is relatively short (100 days at temps. above 20C) 2 or 3 crops can be grown in a year.
• Small farms due to inheritance customs.
• Labour intensive and most of the work is done by hand.
• First of all the irrigation ditches and cropland are prepared using water buffalo to help plough the land these animals also provide fertiliser, fuel and a source of protein.
• The bunds (earth walls) are inspected to ensure that they will retain water – they are maintained on a regular basis.
• The bunds are often stabilised by tree crops e.g. banana, coconut palm
• Seed is sown in a nursery and then the seedlings are transplanted to the flooded padi fields by hand to ensure maximum yield.
• Once the rice matures the fields are drained to allow the crop to ripen.
Features of Intensive Peasant Farming
Recent changes to areas of Intensive Peasant Farming
Governments of countries with peasant farming have tried to introduce modern methods and other measures into the system. This has been described as the Green Revolution.
Use of mini tractors and small rice harvesters
instead of animals = less labour intensive
• Use of
high yielding / new varieties of rice
(2 crops per year) =
Amalgamation of small farms
= more economic
• Formation of
= easier access to machinery, cheaper credit facilities, bulk buying seeds/fertiliser, better market opportunities
• Greater use of
pesticides and fertilisers
, improved irrigation systems = shift from subsistence to commercial farming (small surplus to sell)
• Planting rice
seeds directly into padi fields
instead of seedlings
• Increase in number of
– other jobs for money
• Traditional pattern of
small fields being replaced by larger units
Improved standard of living
– housing, education and health
Began in 1960 as a result of:
• Research carried out at the International Rice Research Institute (I.R.R.I.) in the Philippines.
• Involved the development and use of short-stem (do not get damaged or flattened), high yielding cereals (rice, maize, wheat) with short growing seasons which enables two crops to be grown per year.
• Early success with IR8 rice, which has since been further improved.
• Increased and improved mechanisation
• Increased and improved irrigation and drainage• Increased use of agro-chemicals
= Increased yields
The future Green Revolution must be:
• Accessible to all needy people in the Developing World, and
• Environmentally friendly
Sustainability can be achieved by a variety of agricultural technologies
The main aim of this system of farming is to produce outputs which are sold in the domestic and export markets, making large profits. The system is found in countries such as Canada, the USA (Case Study: Great Plains), Australia, Russia and the UK.
• Geometric pattern of huge farms (64 hectare blocks)
• Settlers were given a block each and farms increased in size as successful farmers bought up additional blocks from those forced to leave due to drought or other hardships.
• Transport mainly by rail to move the huge quantities of grain. The railways followed the geometric pattern of the blocks and the road network was later established in a similar style.
• Settlements grew at regular intervals in a hierarchical fashion along the railway network.
• Farms continued to expand into the twentieth century and some farms can now be hundreds of hectares in size.
Features of Extensive Commercial Farming
Main features of Extensive Commercial Farming
• Very large holdings
• Capital intensive
• High reliance on technologies
• Relatively low yields compensated for by the large areas under cultivation
• Human input is minimal – although decisions made are of great importance
• Population densities are usually low
• Most farms concentrate on one cash crop such as wheat
Recent changes to areas of Extensive Commercial Farming
• Number of workers falling –
increased use of farm machinery
• Agribusiness taking over small farms and
amalgamation of farms
• Greater use of
/ increased range of crops e.g. sunflowers
Increased organic farming
– change in market demand
awareness of soil erosion
, decline in local services
• Continued high use of
• Introduction of
Genetically modified crops (GM crops)
to increase yields
Developed World: EXTENSIVE COMMERCIAL FARMING
Great Plains, USA
Developing World: INTENSIVE PEASANT FARMING