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ADHD; In the Schools and in Your Classrooms

A presentation of ADHD, it's possible causes, treatments, signs and symptoms, and how to deal with it.

Melanie Butler

on 5 May 2010

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Transcript of ADHD; In the Schools and in Your Classrooms

ADHD; In the Schools and in Your Classrooms "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a diagnosis of the American Psychiatric Association. It describes beharvioural symptoms of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity that are presented to a degree that significantly interferes with a person's family and peer relations as well as their educational and/or occupational functioning." (Hughes & Cooper, 2007 p 1) "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurological condition that involves problems with inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity that are developmentally inconsistent with the age of the child." (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2008 p 1) Classroom Fourth-grade teacher mowing grass bored feet interupts sudden activity embarrassed your fault ADHD It's just the way life is Possible Causes
Less activity and/or blood flow in areas of brain
Genetic Causes
Complications in birth or pregnancy

(Rief, 1993)
(Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2008)

"When Distraction- and therefore the inability to concentrate- occurs, I feel as if my mind were a television with the channel changing uncontrollably." (Taylor, 2007) Some coping tips
Be Organized
Create a distraction-free environment
Work in a quiet room
Be well rested and take breaks
Take your medicine
Find a routine or pattern of study

(Taylor, 2007) "ADHD is relatively common, affecting an estimated 2% to 14% of school-age children, depending on definition." (2000, p. 541) People involved in a child's ADHD
The individual student who has ADHD
The parents/guardians of that student
The teacher of that student
The other children in class with that student
Each one involved can have a different point of view.

"In the short term, psycho-stimulants can control some of the beharvioural symptoms of ADHD."
"Long-term behavioural and academic gain requires a combination of interventions."
"It is important to recognize both the positive aspects and the limitaions which medication has on behaviour."
"Side effects of medication are numerous."
(Hughes & Cooper, 2007 p 29)

Treating & Addressing ADHD "Multimodal intervention improves:
Academic performance,
Parent-child interaction, and
School-related behavior;
and reduces
child anxiety and
oppositional behavior."
(Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2008 p 53) Types/names of medication:
Antianxiety medications
Mood stabilizers
Other imortant factors for treating ADHD:
"Children's perspectives need to be heard, and understood, by teachers and parents."
"Combined support is required in home and school settings."
"Greater communication and shared views are needed between all parties."
"Understand the strengths and limitations of medication."
"Consider the wider environmental factors influencing behaviour."

(Hughes & Cooper, 2007 p 25)
Blake Taylor says that, "I am one of approximately four million young people in the United States who has ADHD."
(Taylor, 2007)
Blake has had to face many challenging times in his life since he has ADHD, but he remains positive and looks at his situation with a very positive outlook. "ADHD has many great qualities!"
They may have 'boundless energy to pursue many things.'
The may have the 'ability to be innovative, to take risks, and to try new approaches when everyone else is doing the same old things.'
They 'automatically think outside the box.'
They may be 'more caring, and more understanding.'
(Taylor, 2007)

Positive Qualities of ADHD:
A sense of humor
Great energy
An ability to focus intensely on your interests
Compassion and empathy
Trustworthyness and sincerity
An adventurous spririt
A love for animals and nature
(Taylor, 2007) There are several great resources out there for coping with ADHD. Blake Taylor's book entitled "ADHD & Me" is one.
And, http://www.adhdnews.com/ Characteristics of ADHD Inattention
Weak Problem Solving Skills
Easily frustrated
Mood changes
Bad sense of time and timing
Problems with long-term goals
Poor judgement
(Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2008) Only a professional with training in ADHD or in the diagnosis of mental disorders can actually diagnose someone with ADHD.
To diagnose ADHD, there must be a rather high frequency of symptoms.
Their symptoms must have to cause problems with daily life to be diagnosed with ADHD.
Symptoms must not be developmentally appropriate.
(Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2008) Other Symptoms to watch for:
Appears to be in constant motion
Often fidgets with hands or feet, squirms, falls from chair
Finds nearby objects to play with/put in mouth
Roams around classroom
Blurts out verbally, often inappropriately
Can't wait for their turn
Often talks excessively
Gets in trouble
Difficulty with transitions
Often aggressive
Socially immature
Low self-esteem and high frustration
(Rief, 1993)

Teaching Students with ADHD Some Things to Remember:
"When exploring the needs of the child with ADHD it is important to identify and clarify their positive achievements and traits."
Team work and collaboration is of the utmost importance.
"Working together requires professions and parents to communicate and identify a shared purpose and vision for children."
(Hughes & Cooper, 2007 p 69)
"Cooper and McIntyre (1996) indicate that both teachers and pupils were in agreement that effective teaching and learning was characterized by teacher-initiated actions that enabled pupils to engage with learning tasks in way that gave pupils a sense of ownership of learning outcomes."
(Hughes & Cooper, 2007 p 74) "Successful programs for children with ADHD integrate the following three components:
1. academic instruction;
2. behavioral interventions; and
3. classroom accomodations."
(Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2008 p 58) Teachers must;
1."Evaluate the child's individual needs and strengths."
2."Select appropriate instructional practices."
3."For children receiving special education services, integrate appropriate practices within an IEP."
(Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2008 p57-58) Some suggestions for within the school setting:
"Keep the child calm."
"Show the child respect."
"Avoid confrontational situations"
"Listen to the child and his or her concerns."
"Consider the child's maximum length of concentration."
"Keep noise levels to a minimum/avoid distraction."
"Provide reassurance on tasks."
"Provide clear guidance, verbal and written."
"Be consistent with discipline and with goals."
"Be sensitive to the child's limitations."
"Provide routine."
(Hughes & Cooper, 2007 p 88-89)
Giving praise is very important for students with ADHD.
Some things to consider:
"Define the appropriate behavior while giving praise."
"Give praise immediately."
"Vary the statements given as praise."
"Be consistent and sincere with praise."
(Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2008 p74) A few suggestions on seating:
"Seat the child near the teacher."
"Seat the child near a student role model."
"Provide low-distraction work areas."
(Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2008 p85-86) Some things that might help students with ADHD are:
More exercise
More and/or better sleep
More activity and outdoor play
(Johnson, 2009)
"Kids use movement-like swiveling in chairs or bouncing at their desks-the way adults use caffeine: to stay focused. Rather than prevent learning, fidgeting may actually facilitate it."
(Cloud, 2009) "In a recent survey of teachers, Arcia et al (2000) found that many teachers lack basic information about the nature of ADHD and comprehensive classroom management programs geared for these students."
(Pfiffner, DuPaul, & Barkley, P. 4) "The educational success of children with ADHD involves not only a well-documented behavioral technology, but also the presence of teachers actively and willingly engaged in the process of working with students with ADHD and an administration that supports identification for ADHD."
(Pfiffner, DuPaul, & Barkley, P. 4) Do you possess the basic information about ADHD that you need?
Are you ready to be actively and willingly engaged in the teaching of students with ADHD?
Just realize that each of your students is special and unique and they each of them deserves your very best!
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