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Causes and Effects of the Civil War

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Krisnte Lagahid

on 12 December 2014

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Transcript of Causes and Effects of the Civil War

Argument: The Civil War positively impacted the equality for blacks and opened trade and communication opportunities to create a more industrialized nation in America. Thus federal government gained power over state government and ended the split in Union. This caused economical power to flourish in the United States.
Civil War Era Exhibition
John Brown raided a federal armory in Harper ferry and armed slaves to fight for their freedom. He was executed on December 2, 1859 where thousands of people gather to honor him as a hero of anti-slavery. This speech recognizes that several historical figures performed the similar actions and the only difference is that Brown has used his means for black men. His actions gave hope to blacks to stand up for themselves and realize they can impact society as much as whites.
Day of Mourning Speech: Dec. 2, 1859 Rev. J. Sella Martin
After The War:
Thirteenth Amendment: Dec 6, 1865
Before The War:
Slavery
The New York Stock Board In Session.
Panic of 1857
During the abolitionist movement, abolitionists believed that the blacks deserve that same freedom as whites and worked to end discrimination and segregation. Their goal was to immediately emancipate all slaves which is one of the main causes of the Civil War. In the 1850s free-soilers activists felt that allowing slavery was focused upon them and sought to restrict slavery to existing areas and prevent its spread further west.
Abolitionist Movement
Portrait of Abraham Lincoln.
Uncle Tom's Cabin: May 20, 1852
Kansas-Nebraska Act: May 30,1854
The State Register did agree with the violent actions of the abolitionist, John Brown and blamed the Harpers Ferry raid on the Republican Party. Many felt that the dispute about the abolishment of slavery should not result in violence. As long as slavery still existed however, the conflict between pro-slavery people and abolitionment would continue on.
The Irrepressible Conflict: 1859 State Register (Springfield, Illinois)
“2. Resolved, That as slavery does not exist by law, and is not likely to be introduced into any of the territory acquired by the United States from the republic of Mexico, it is inexpedient for Congress to provide by law either for its introduction into, or exclusion from, any part of the said territory; and that appropriate territorial governments ought to be established by Congress in all of the said territory , not assigned as the boundaries of the proposed State of California, without the adoption of any restriction or condition on the subject of slavery.”
Compromise of 1850
John Brown incident: May 24, 1856
Slaves threatening their masters at gunpoint to escape.
Know-Nothing Party
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
Federal Aid for Land Purchase: 1868 Richard H. Cain
Cain proposed that land that could be resold to freedmen at a reasonable price. Throughout his speech he made those who depended on slavery realize that owning land is not the same as making a living. By dividing large plantations and selling them at low prices it will allow for more work force and raise economy.
Mississippi Black Code: 1865
Fourteenth Amendment: June 14, 1866
Fifteenth Amendment
Radical Reconstruction
The Force Act: 1871
The editorial Scribner’s Journal recognized that unlike the Mexican-American War, the end of the Civil War still did not promote unity in the nation. During the Mexican-American War the nation showed each other sympathy due to Northerners’ and Southerners’ blood shed for a common purpose. This sympathy was lost during the Civil War even though both the North and South called for national unity and reconciliation during the Reconstruction era.
What the Centennial Ought to Accomplish: 1875
A term used as cotton being the dominant cash crop in the United States. It was mainly used in the political and economical worlds respectively. This term came into existence soon after the invention of cotton gin but was first suggested in David Christy’s book Cotton is King in 1855. The belief caused slavery to become increasingly popular.
King Cotton
This act opened up settlement opportunities in western United States and allowed free slaves to put in a claim for up to one hundred and sixty free acres of federal land. Grants that government provided gave new opportunities to many Impoverished farmers from the East and Midwest. The growing mechanization of American agriculture led to individual homestead being replaced with a small number of larger farms.
Homestead Act: May 1862
The Military Reconstruction Act divided the southern into five military districts. Each on placed under the control of the U.S. military and placed under military leadership. New elections would be held by Congress’ approved voters which were mostly former slaves. The Confederacy was split up while under the rule of former Union generals.
Military Reconstruction Act: Mar. 2, 1867
After the war it was hard for most white farmers to adjust without slaves most ended up going into poverty unable to keep up with the amount of work. Freed slaves felt that for all the years of injustice and hard labor they should be entitled to a certain amount of land that belonged to their master. In the end the government was reluctant still to sell to blacks and as a result only a small percentile became landowners. This was a starting point for recently freed slaves to start a new life.
Changes in Economy
Second Reconstructive Act: Mar. 23, 1867
The Second Reconstructive Act was mainly to clarify that the military commanders are responsible of registering voters and hold elections in their territories. Voters were required to recite the registration oath which promised their support to the constitution and their obedience to the law. This act stated that only the majority of votes cast were need to get the constitution ratified. However, this act only provided suffrage for blacks in the South.
Fort Sumter: Mar. 21, 1861
Picture of Fort Sumter.
Letter to His Brother Henry: April 30, 1861 Fred Spooner
“Their open-mouthed treason, which culminates in precisely such outrages as that at Harper’s Ferry, is but the logical sequence of the teachings of Wm. H. Seward and Abraham Lincoln—the one boldly proclaiming an “irrepressible conflict” between certain states of the Union, because of their local institutions, and the other declaring from stump and hustings, the country round, that the Union cannot continue as the fathers made it—part slave and part free states.”
Northern Economy
Revenues of the U.S Gov during the 1861-1865.
Southern Economy
Revenues of the Confederate Gov. 1861-1864.
Letter to Her Mother: May 26, 1862 Katherine Prescott Wormeley
“The return passage was rather an anxious one. The river is much obstructed with sunken ships and trees, and we had to feel our way, slackening speed every ten minutes. If we had been alone, it would not have mattered; but to have fifty men upon our hands unable to move was too heavy a responsibility not to make us anxious. The captain and pilot said the boat was leaking (we heard the water gurgling under our feet), and they remarked casually that the river was “four fathoms deep about there”; but we saw their motive, and were not scared. We were safe alongside the “Spaulding” by midnight; but Mr. Olmsted’s tone of voice as he said, “You don’t know how glad I am to see you,” showed how much he had been worried. And yet it was the best thing we could have done, for three, perhaps five, of the men would have been dead before morning."
Northern Society
As the war progressed, Northern industry mobilized to conduct a war designed not just to defend Union territory, but to invade the South, defeat Confederate armies, and occupy Southern territory-a huge and unprecedented task that required all of the resources the North could muster.
During the Civil War
Southern Society
A Wesleyan-Methodist family from the N.C. Quaker Belt: Caroline Hulin and sons. Husband and father Jesse Hulin was martyred during the Civil War for his refusal to serve the Confederacy. Photo courtesy of Elaine Reynolds.
Changes in Slavery
Slaves work in Sea Islands, South Carolina. (Library of Congress).
Emancipation Proclamation: Jan. 1, 1863 Abraham Lincoln
Battle of Gettysburg: July 1, 1863
Fallen soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Gettysburg Address: Nov. 19, 1863 Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln Delivering Gettysburg Address.
Letter to Enos Ott: November 21, 1864 Ginnie Ott
“They got all I wanted except white flannel & I wish if you can get any in Richmond you would send me 4 or 5 yds. The calico you sent me came to hand all right; it is very pretty indeed. Mr. Row is at home now. He says he cannot make your boots without your measure. You will have to send it soon or he cannot make them atal [at all] as he expects to go to the army the ninth of next month. Mag went out last week to hung the brandy & could not find it. She wishes to know where it is though I suppose she will say something about in her letter. Sister wants to know what black calico is selling at down there. She wants to get a dress and there was but one peice in Staunton and it was very coarse. She says if [it] is not too dear she would [like] for you to get her a dress & she will pay you in silver if you wish it. There was three men here gathering the tithe corn [the 10 percent of crops requisitioned by the Confederate government] out of the field last week, and four men here yesterday trying to get wheat, and there are two wagons here now for the hay.”
Apr. 9, 1861 - Apr.12, 1865
1850 to 1861
1865 to 1877
The slave market in Atlanta, Georgia, 1864 (Liberty of Congress).
Newspaper promoting abolition of colonial slavery.
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DOCUMENT
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Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
Flag of the Know-Nothing political party.
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Poster about the publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
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This 1856 map shows slave states (gray), free states (pink), U.S. territories (green), and Kansas in center (white). Note that the Kansas and Nebraska territories extended all the way west to the Rocky Mountains and north to the border with Canada.
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Slaves preparing Cotton for ginning.
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Photograph of John Brown in Kansas, 1856.
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“The free-labor system educates all alike, and by opening all the fields of industrial employment, and all the departments of authority, to the unchecked and equal rivalry of all classes of men, at once secures universal contentment, and brings into the highest possible activity all the physical, moral, and social energies of the whole State. In States where the slave system prevails, the masters, directly or indirectly, secure all political power, and constitute a ruling aristocracy. In States where the free-labor system prevails, universal suffrage necessarily obtains, and the State inevitably becomes, sooner or later, a republic or democracy...”
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“I remember that Concord, and Bunker Hill, and every historic battlefield in this country, and the celebration of those events, all go to approve the means that John Brown has used; the only difference being, that in our battles, in America, means have been used for white men and that John Brown has used his means for black men.”
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Lincoln's First Inaugural Address: Mar. 4, 1861
DOCUMENT
DOCUMENT
Slavery helped fuel the growth of textile mills, insurance companies, and other businesses in the North. It also provided the sell of cotton in the South which was the foundation of the Old South’s economy. Southerners believed that slavery kept blacks fed, clothed and occupied while Northerners considered blacks equals with whites and doubt slavery’s benevolence. This debate over the inferiority of blacks which caused Northern abolitionists to become increasingly violent.
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Abraham Lincoln's Draft of the Emancipation Proclamation.
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Lee Surrenders Apr 9, 1865
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Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendering to Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, April 9, 1865; wood engraving based on an illustration by Alfred R. Waud, 1887.
The Granger Collection, New York
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Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865)
“SECTION 2. All freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes may intermarry with each other, in the same manner and under the same regulations that are provided by law for white persons: Provided, that the clerk of probate shall keep separate records of the same.”
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“Be it enacted... That any person who, under color of any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, custom, or usage of any State, shall subject, or cause of the State to the contrary notwithstanding, be liable to the party injured in any action at law, suit in equity, or other proper proceeding for redress; such proceeding to be prosecuted in the several district or circuit courts of the United States, with and subject to the same rights of appeal, review upon error, and other remedies provided in like remedial laws of the United States which are in their nature applicable in such cases. . . .”
Children, whose labor had been dictated by the owner under slavery, attending school.
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This amendment allowed all men regardless of race of class the right to vote. Ironically the North considered only giving the right to vote to blacks freed before the end of the civil war. but in the end it was made so all men were given the right to vote. This positively making the nation stronger and opening political positions for blacks.

First time black males can vote.
“ We hear about the perturbed condition of the Southern mind. We hear it said that multitudes there are just as disloyal as they were during the civil war. This, we believe, we are justified in denying. . . . They are not actively in rebellion, and they do not propose to be. They do not hope for the re-establishment of slavery. They fought bravely and well to establish their theory, but the majority was against them; and if the result of the war emphasized any fact, it was that en masse the people of the United States constitute a nation—indivisible in constituents, in interest, in destiny. The result of the war was without significance, if it did not mean that the United States constitute a nation which cannot be divided; which will not permit itself to be divided; which is integral, indissoluble, indestructible. . . . The great point with them is to recognize the fact that, for richer or poorer, in sickness and health, until death do us part, these United States constitute a nation; that we are to live, grow, prosper, and suffer together, united by bands that cannot be sundered.”
“It was said that five and one-seventh acres were not enough to live on. If South Carolina, in its sovereign power, can devise any plan for the purchase of the large plantations in this State now lying idle, divide and sell them out at a reasonable price, it will give so many people work. I will guarantee to find persons to work every five acres. I will also guarantee that after one year’s time, the Freedman’s Bureau will not have to give any man having one acre of land anything to eat. This country has a genial clime, rich soil, and can be worked to advantage. The man who can not earn a living on five acres, will not do so on twenty-five.”
Presidential Reconstruction
Cartoon from Harper’s Weekly alleging Klan and White League opposition to Reconstruction policies.
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Horatio Bateman's 1867 illustration, "Reconstruction." Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
A family poses with the wagon in which they live and travel daily during their pursuit of a homestead, 1886.
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Painting depicting that blacks are men too.
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Left: Carpetbagger, Right: Scalawag
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Map of how the South was divided into military sections.
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Announcing the Second Reconstructive Act.
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"King Cotton (United States History)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. August 19, 2014. Accessed November 29, 2014.
Dattel, Gene. "When Cotton Was King." Opinionator When Cotton Was King Comments. March 26, 2011. Accessed December 1, 2014.
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"Portrait of John Brown." PBS. Accessed November 28, 2014.
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"Panic of 1857." Ohio History Central. Accessed November 29, 2014.
"A STOCK PANIC IN 1857! WALL STREET IN ACTION." The Mitchell Archives. Accessed November 29, 2014.
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Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Imperial Ambitions and Sectional Crises." In
Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources
, Page 385. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.
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Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Imperial Ambitions and Sectional Crises." In
Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources
, Page 389. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.
20
"Lincoln's First Inaugural Address: Summary & Analysis." Education Portal. Accessed November 29, 2014.
21
"Fort Sumter." Council on Foreign Relations. Accessed November 29, 2014.
22
Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Civil War." In
Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources
, Page 418. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.
23
Shmoop Editorial Team. "Economy in The Civil War." Shmoop.com. November 11, 2008. Accessed November 29, 2014.
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Shmoop Editorial Team. "Economy in The Civil War." Shmoop.com. November 11, 2008. Accessed November 29, 2014.
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24
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Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Civil War." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 421. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.
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United States. National Park Service. "Industry and Economics." National Parks Service. November 30, 2014. Accessed November 29, 2014.
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Shmoop Editorial Team. "Society in The Civil War." Shmoop.com. November 11, 2008. Accessed November 29, 2014.
South, Renegade. "Moncure Conway, Southern Abolitionist." Renegade South. January 19, 2010. Accessed November 29, 2014.
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"Slavery in the United States." Council on Foreign Relations. Accessed November 29, 2014.
1
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31
"The Gettysburg Address." Historynet.com. Accessed November 29, 2014.
32

Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Civil War." In
Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources
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33
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34
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Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Emancipations and Reconstructions." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 450 to Page 451. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.
36
"Reconstruction." History.com. Accessed November 29, 2014.
"Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-1867." Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-1867. Accessed November 29, 2014.
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"Radical Reconstruction: 1867–1877." SparkNotes. Accessed November 29, 2014.
"Radical Reconstruction Begins." Civil War on the Western Border. Accessed November 29, 2014.
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"Homestead Act." History.com. Accessed November 29, 2014.
"The Homestead Act of 1862." National Archives and Records Administration. Accessed November 29, 2014.
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Kelly, Martin. "Fourteenth Amendment." About. Accessed November 29, 2014.
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46
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Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Emancipations and Reconstructions." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 452. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.
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Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Emancipations and Reconstructions." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 456 to Page 457. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.
56
"Abolitionist Movement." History.com. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War." Digital History. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"A STOCK PANIC IN 1857! WALL STREET IN ACTION." The Mitchell Archives. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Carpetbaggers And Scalawags." Carpetbaggers And Scalawags. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Carpetbaggers And Scalawags." History.com. Accessed November 29, 2014.

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"Compromise of 1850." History.com. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Confederate General Lee Surrenders." History.com. Accessed November 29, 2014.

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"Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution." Web Guides. Accessed November 29, 2014.

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"Gettysburg." Council on Foreign Relations. Accessed November 29, 2014.

Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Civil War." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 418. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.

Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Civil War." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 420. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.

Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Civil War." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 421. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.

Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Emancipations and Reconstructions." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 450 to Page 451. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.

Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Emancipations and Reconstructions." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 452. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.

Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Emancipations and Reconstructions." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 454. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.

Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Emancipations and Reconstructions." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 456 to Page 457. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.

Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Imperial Ambitions and Sectional Crises." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 385. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.

Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. "Imperial Ambitions and Sectional Crises." In Exploring American Histories: A Brief Survey with Sources, Page 389. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.

"Home." Our Documents. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Homestead Act." History.com. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Impact of Uncle Tom's Cabin, Slavery, and the Civil War." The National and International Impact of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Kansas-Nebraska Act." History.com. Accessed November 29, 2014.

Kelly, Martin. "Fourteenth Amendment." About. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"King Cotton (United States History)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. August 19, 2014. Accessed November 29, 2014.

Knoedl, Michael. "Military Reconstruction Act." Education Portal. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Know-Nothing Party (political Party, United States)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. July 21, 2014. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Lincoln's First Inaugural Address: Summary & Analysis." Education Portal. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Panic of 1857." Ohio History Central. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Portrait of John Brown." PBS. Accessed November 28, 2014.

"Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-1867." Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-1867. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Radical Reconstruction: 1867–1877." SparkNotes. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Radical Reconstruction Begins." Civil War on the Western Border. Accessed November 29, 2014.

Ransom, Roger. "The Economics of the Civil War." EH.Net Encyclopedia. August 24, 2001. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Reconstruction." History.com. Accessed November 29, 2014.

Reyes, Lucia. "Reconstruction Acts of 1867." Education Portal. Accessed November 29, 2014.

Scarr, Phil. "The Masses." : The Know-Nothings and the Tea Party. June 5, 2011. Accessed November 29, 2014.

Shmoop Editorial Team. "Economy in The Civil War." Shmoop.com. November 11, 2008. Accessed November 29, 2014.

Shmoop Editorial Team. "Society in The Civil War." Shmoop.com. November 11, 2008. Accessed November 29, 2014.
United States. National Park Service. "Industry and Economics." National Parks Service. November 30, 2014. Accessed November 29, 2014.

"Slavery in the United States." Council on Foreign Relations. Accessed November 29, 2014.

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"The Second Reconstruction Act Is Passed." History Engine. Accessed November 29, 2014.
Henderson, Nina. "Civil War." BlogSpot. October 3, 2012. Accessed November 29, 2014.

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"Uncle Tom's Cabin." History Net Where History Comes Alive World US History Online RSS. Accessed November 29, 2014.

Bibliography
Vincent Conlu, Kristen Lagahid
Block 6

Compromise of 1850 included five bills that were created to unite Northern and Southern states. The reasoning for the Compromise being written was the debate on whether slavery should be legal or not. It admitted California as a free state, creating Utah and New Mexico territories with slavery as an option, settling Texas-New Mexico boundary, ending the slave trade in Washington, D.C., and making it easier for southerners to recover fugitive slaves.
During the 1850s many slaves escaped through networks like the Underground Railroad which linked a series of safe houses. The Fugitive Slave Act made forcibly compelled citizens to assist the capture of escaped slaves and allowed them to return the runaway slave to their master. It gave punishments not only to the slaves that escaped but also to the person(s) who helped them escape.
This party formally know as the “American Party” was a political group that started in the 1850’s. Whenever asked about their organization they were told to respond “I know nothing.” starting the name “know-nothing party”.They’re strongly against immigration, which grew hatred towards blacks, and anti-roman catholic settlement.
In Uncle Tom’s Cabin it illustrates a slave who suffered many injustices during enslavement. This book showed the brutality of slavery and made many recognize that slavery should be abolished. As a result it invoked abolitionist ideals to intensively increase and help support American slaves.
Within this act, it mandated that new territories trying to become a part of the United States have to vote for “popular sovereignty.” It would determine rather or not to have slavery allowed in the territory. The Kansas-Nebraska Act ended up starting a debate between abolitionists and pro-slavery parties. This helped start Bleeding Kansas, a series of violent political confrontations involving slavery, and in turn led to the start of the Civil War.
John Brown was an abolitionist who led an attack on a settlement along the Pottawatomie River. Together with his group attacked the settlement brutally killed five pro-slavery settlers. This cause slave owners to restrict the freedoms of their slaves but at the same time showed slaves that they have the power to go against their masters.
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The Panic of 1857 was caused by the loss of Europeans buying U.S. agricultural products. Most of the Europeans by trade were farmers, however during the Crimean War in Europe many joined the military. This caused a need for an alternative way to gain crops during the time of war. After the war, European farmers rid the need for U.S. crops and as a result caused panic among the citizens of the United States.
President Lincoln was not a welcomed president by the southern states. Although he is a Republican president, he has no intention of taking away their peace or property (slaves), but he wants to address that the Constitution binds the states together and that it can’t be legally torn apart. He proclaims the Constitution is a contract and could not be broken without every state approving.
After South Carolina seceded from the union, Major Robert Anderson orders his men to take refuge at Fort Sumter fearing for their safety. Confederate Beauregard demanded the Fort’s surrender but Anderson refused the next morning and Beauregard opened fired. Unable to fight, Anderson surrendered the fort
and neither side suffered from casualties. In honor, he was able to give a final one hundred gun salute to his tattered flag. This was the start of the Civil War and the beginning of the two armies fighting against one another.
Union armies were supplied with wagons, tents and its factory-produced blue uniformed. The North held all of the currency reserves of the federal government and had sixty-nine percent of the railroad capacity. To increase business, factories manufactured war supplies for the relatively well-equipped massive Union armies. The government needed more money however which lead to the selling of bonds, “greenbacks” (paper money), the first income tax in 1862, and the founding of the Bureau of Internal Revenue.
The loss of cotton exports caused the South’s economy to drop. It lost its banking system and held no gold or silver reserves. Printing money as currency was the only solution and the states collected little amounts of money which left the Confederacy broke. The Confederate armies had a short supply of arms and ammunition and lost the Civil War primarily because it ran out of men, money and supplies.
Mainly men left for war, leaving the women to run the farms and take responsibility of things during their absence. Although women weren’t allowed to work in factories, they helped take care of the wounded soldiers and were able to create medical supplies. Most young white men and immigrant men were able to find work easily however inflation during the war made it difficult for workers to earn wages. Drafting white men caused increased immigration and greater competition between returning soldiers and immigrants in work areas.
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Damage to the southern railway system during the war caused transporting food difficult. Majority of military-aged white male population were fighting during the war, leaving most plantations emptied. Political power shifted to small farmers who demanded more political influence in return for their sacrifices in the war however after the war it was compromised by the enfranchisement of former slaves.
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Slaves were considered property, little rights and no choice they barely had anyway to actually survive. As slaves found refuge in the North, several Union generals established abolitionist policies in conquered Southern land. After the Emancipation Proclamation however, slaves were freed but some were still kept as slaves in places where the Union Army did not reach.
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Battle of Gettysburg is the bloodiest battle of Civil War and the greatest victory for the Union army. This weakened both the Confederate and Union armies severely and played a key part to the Union victory in the Civil War. After the Battle of Gettysburg the Confederate army retreated and never came back to the North, however this did not mark the end of the Civil War.

President Lincoln gave a speech to honor the soldiers from both the North and South who gave the ultimate sacrifice for their respective causes. In his speech, he made others realize that the purpose of their deaths was to promote equality, freedom and national unity. This gave the Civil War a new meaning and caused abolitionist beliefs to increase.
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Confederate Robert E. Lee surrendered the last major Confederate army to Union Ulysses S. Grant. Grant agreed to help the South’s agricultural economy and carry their families through the next winter. The Union winning the war finally meant that it was a step close to abolishing slavery and freeing previous slaves.
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This amendment to the U.S. constitution finally abolished slavery and forced labor unless it was used as a punishment for a crime. The Republican Party platform added this amendment for the upcoming Presidential elections. Passing of this amendment helped find a resolution to the problem of slavery and gave hope to blacks for equality.
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In opposition of the Southern rebellion, Lincoln posed the Emancipation Proclamation to set into effect which emancipated slaves. Passing of this law helped prevent foreign nations such as Britain and France to get involved in Civil War and led the way to total abolition of slavery in the United States. This gave blacks the opportunity to fight for their freedom in the Union armies.
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President Andrew Johnson made sure that land the Union confiscated and distributed to the freed slaves by the army of the Freedmen’s Bureau reverted to its prewar owners. This caused southern states to enact black codes were designed to restrict activities freed blacks can do and ensured their labor force availability. This upset the North, especially those who are members of the Congress, and refused to seat congressmen and senators elected from the South.
After dominating the election of 1866, Radical Republicans gained control over the Senate, House of Representatives and power over policy-making in Congress. This allowed them to override vetoes made by President Andrew Johnson. As a result the Civil Rights Act once vetoed by Andrew Johnson was able to pass eventually.
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Through the fourteenth amendment those born in the United States, except for Indians who were not taxed, were considered citizens and equal under law. Citizenship was reaffirmed for those both born and naturalized in the United States regardless of race. This helped prevent discrimination against blacks and brought the white and black population to nearly the same time.

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Carpetbaggers were travelers who attempted to profit from or gain control over a new region, usually without consent of the original inhabitants. The desire for reform and concern for the civil and political rights of freed blacks motivated many carpetbaggers. Scalawags were mostly established planters in the Deep South that believed whites should recognize blacks’ civil and political rights while
still retaining control of political and economic life Majority of scalawags were non-slaveholding small farmers, merchants, artisans, and other professionals who during the Civil War remained loyal to the Union.
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Fred Spooner wrote to his brother, Henry, talking about how relying on slavery was weakening the South. While number of slaves decrease throughout the war, so does the South’s economy. This caused a lack of resources in the South and incapability to fight against effectively against the North.
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Within Ginnie Ott’s letter it details how the Confederacy sent soldiers to confiscate crops, cattle, and other goods as the southern economy was declining during the war. As shortages were appearingly more frequent in the area, Ott advised her husband to stay in the base than to transfer to a company close to home which is more than likely to run out of supplies. Throughout the war the South’s economy plummeted and lacked resources and supplies to aids its population.
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During the Civil War, the United States government was unable to provide adequate medical attention to its soldiers. Many soldiers died on the hospital boats from not receiving the right amount of medical treatment. Due to the lack of supplies, the wounded were expected to help themselves and medical treatment was mainly used for those with serious injuries.

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Mississippi was the first state to enact black codes which were used to limit rights of freed blacks and condition them in a way that was closely similar to slavery. It required blacks to provide written proof of residency and employment or else they will be arrested. The Mississippi black codes limited where blacks could live, restricted their employment and banned interracial marriage.
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The Ku Klux Klan Act (Force Act) was a response to stop terror and intimidation of southern black and white Republicans by their opponents. Troops were dispatched to enforce the law and prosecuted hundreds of Klan members with broke up the Klan within a few years. As a result it provided civil relief for damages and criminal penalties.
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