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Emergency WASH

Summer course material for UNESCO-IHE WASH for Peace - Draft

Fiona Zakaria

on 11 November 2017

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Transcript of Emergency WASH

WASH Technologies and Infrastructure Design for Emergencies
Upon studying this module, you are expected to be able to:
Describe the basis of WASH intervention in emergencies
Understand mechanism of WASH coordination in emergencies
Review Different WASH Technical options and their suitability

WASH coordination in emergencies
WASH Technical Options and Their Suitability
Specific Emergencies Criteria
Water Supply Technologies
Sanitation Technologies
Hygiene Promotion Techniques
Responsive Emergency Responses
Design a WASH assessment (rapid assessment)
Plan an intervention based on a given scenario, then present the proposal to the class
WASH Interventions in Emergencies
Disaster and public health
What is an emergency?
"relatively acute situations affecting large civilian populations, usually involving a combination of war or civil strife, food shortages, and population displacement, resulting in significant excess mortality" (Toole, 1995)

Natural Disasters
Natural Disasters
Anthropological Disasters
Anthropological Disasters
Political unrest
Diseases (epidemic)
17,000 cases of diarrhea were reported during displacement in Bangladesh following a flood disaster in 2004
Significant increase of diarrheal-disease cases of more than two-folds, were reported in all flooding years of 1998, 2004 and 2007 in Bangladesh, compared to non-flood years
An investigation conducted after floods in Indonesia between 2001 and 2003 revealed that diarrheal case-patients with Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A were four times more likely to have been exposed to the disaster
In Aceh Province, Indonesia, a rapid health assessment in the town of Calang 2 weeks after the December 2004 tsunami found that 100% of the survivors drank from unprotected wells and that 85% of residents reported diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks.
In Muzaffarabad, Pakistan, an outbreak of acute watery diarrhea occurred in an unplanned, poorly equipped camp of 1,800 persons after the 2005 earthquake. The outbreak involved more than 750 cases, mostly adults, and was controlled after adequate water and sanitation facilities were provided
Community outbreak of cholera was confirmed in West Bengal, India after Cyclone AILA hits the country.
In November 2010, the Ministry of Health in Haiti had reported 11,125 hospitalized patients and 724 confirmed deaths from cholera, 10 months after the earthquake struck Haiti
In developed country such United States, diarrheal outbreaks were reported in disaster affected households and internally displaced people after Hurricane Allison in 2001 and Katrina in 2005.
23 JULY 2012 - The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has reported a sharp increase in the number of cholera cases in the armed conflict area of North Kivu. According to the report, 368 new cases were reported from epidemiological week 24 (11-17 June) to epidemiological week 26 (25 June-1 July)
Key Players
Local Authorities
Humanitarian agencies (RCs, NGOs, UN Agencies)
Beneficiaries Entities
Funding matters, Political-social strategy
Humanitarian principle: humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence
Funding: International funds, national funds
Political: access, security, regulations (for imported goods, etc.), conflict of interests, non-voluntary movements
Study Cases: Tsunami (2004), Darfur(armed conflict 2003 onwards), Haiti (2010), Pakistan (flood 2005, 2010)

WASH Guidelines
SPHERE Standards: minimum water supply per person, maximum person per latrine facility
UNICEF WASH Technical Brief:
JMP WHO/UNICEF, WASH in School guides, drilling manual, factsheets, etc.
UNHCR guides: e.g. UNHCR Water manual for refugee situations
Books, reports, supply catalogues, etc.
Faecal Oral Diseases Transmission

Disasters Related Diseases
Waterborne diseases (faecal oral transmission)
diarrheal diseases (including cholera)
Bacillary dysentery
Typhoid fever
Diseases associated with crowding
Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI)
Vectorborne Diseases
Malnutrition (Remember that “Malnutrition and diarrhoea are in reciprocal relationship”)

Cluster Coordination
Inter Agency Steering Committee (2005)
9 areas of humanitarian activity at global level
Service Provision:
Logistic (Lead: WFP)
Emergency Telecomunications (Lead: OCHA-Process owner, UNICEF - Common Data Services, WFP - Common Security Telecommunication Services)
Relief and Assistance to Beneficiaries
Camp coordination and Camp Management (Lead: UNHCR for conflict-generated IDPs, IOM for natural disasters)
Emergency Shelter (IFRC - for natural disasters)
Health (Lead: WHO)
Nutrition (Lead: UNICEF)
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (Lead: UNICEF)
Cross cutting issues:
Early Recovery (Lead: UNDP)
Protection (Lead: UNHCR for conflict generated IDP; UNHCR, UNICEF and OHCHR for natural disasters)

Quick to avail
Specific Emergencies Criteria
"Aim for timely and effective responses"
logistic is easy - using local material
acceptable technical complexities
minimum dependency to water/power supply to be able to work
easy operation and maintenance
suitable to users customs and knowledge

What can go wrong 1
Desalination Plant, Aceh 2005
What can go wrong 2
foto musibah gunung merapi

SLEMAN, 29/10 - WC DARURAT TIDAK DIGUNAKAN. Seorang relawan keluar dari WC darurat di Barak Pengungsian Kepuharjo, Cangkringan, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Jumat (29/10). Kurangnya pasokan air bersih membuat keberadaan WC darurat menjadi terlantar dan tidak digunakan oleh para pengungsi. FOTO ANTARA/Noveradika/Koz/mes/10.

But…was it successful?

Water Supply Technologies
water source or water treatment or both?
Water Source
Water tankering
Shallow wells (hand dug)
Deep wells (boreholes)
Rainwater harvesting
Fog harvesting
Water Treatment
Point of use water treatment:
Disinfection: Chlorination, UV Disinfection
Household water filter
Source water treatment:
Disinfection: Chlorination, UV
Filtration: membrane and non membrane
Sanitation Technologies
Excreta Disposal:

Commonly used water supply equipments in emergency
Various types of tank
Pillow Tank
Oxfam Tank
Plastic Tank
Hygiene Promotion Techniques
Depending on the objectives:
Non verbal campaign: posters, leaflets
Verbal campaign: household visits, campaign at water points, trainings, hygiene campaign through school children, tv-programs, words of mouth from public figures/trustworthy persons
Responsive Emergency Responses
"Addressing needs with feasible options"
Information on what is required - Needs Assessments
Knowledge of what solutions to offer
Assessment: Required information
General information:
Demography, access, health status

WASH related information:
water source, water quality, customs towards hygiene practices, excreta disposal methods, topography, types of soil, rainfall, seasons, water table ...

Others: Local resources,Who-What-Where
Knowledge on Solutions
Technical knowledge, different technologies and technical complexities
Logistics and costs
Users acceptance
Emergency in humanitarian context:
The search for perception: Emergency Sanitation 3

The search for perception: Emergency Sanitation 2

The search for perception: Emergency Sanitation 1

What would be your response if you are to help him?
Malnourish child from southern somalia in a displacement camp

- maybe

- maybe

FOOD (Therapeutical Food – e.g. plumpy nuts)

Common perceptions

WASH is one of the life-saving responses in emergencies (?)
WASH Cluster Coordination at National/State Level
Local Authority
Corresponding Gov. Offices e.g. water,sanitation utilities, ministry of health
WASH Agencies
Example of Rapid Assessment Form
Provide Recommendation for WASH Intervention
Scenario 1
A new influx of approximately 200 families of displaced people in the 1st week of arrival - because their village was flooded, location situated very close to a small water stream. No camp management in place, and there has been no response from any humanitarian agencies. No obvious sign of health threat, but there is history of cholera epidemic in the area. Rapid assessment collected the following information.
Water source has been the water from the stream, collected manually with buckets, no treatment prior to drinking
People are accustomed to use latrine, but with absence of latrine at the camp, open defecation is common,
Shelter is built from make-shift material, weaved grass for walls and roof, and logs for structures
ground water table is high, soil is varies from sand - sandy clay and hard clay at places. At places with hard clay, it is feasible to dig max 1 meter deep.
access: the location is only accessible with 4WD vehicles, and road path is too small for 10T trucks
it is rainy season
Scenario 2
A new influx of approximately 8000 displaced people in the 1st week of arrival - because their village was burned to the ground, location situated very close to a small town. No camp management in place. Some immediate assistance has been given by local authority. There has been reported diarrhea cases, mostly children. Malnutrition is also reported although not accute ones. Rapid assessment collected the following information.
Water source has been from water trucking - taken water from th town water supply i.e. boreholes. There has been limited supply for the high operational cost, and lack of water quantity at the source
Open defecation is common, poor knowledge on correct hygiene practices
Shelter is built from make-shift material usually donated tarpauline (plastic sheets)
ground water table is very low (closest boreholes is drilled to 80 m deep), soil is silty clay and rocky at some places. At places with silty clay, it is feasible to dig max 1 meter deep.
access: the location is easily accessible with any vehicles
it is dry in hot-climated region
Provide Recommendation for WASH Intervention
Different waterborne diseases with Epidemic Potential in Disasters (Waring and Brown, 2005)
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