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French Life in the 1800s
Transcript of French Life in the 1800s
The end of the 1700s brought a huge inflation
1800s left many in poverty
The lower class increased in size
Napoleon's reign was mainly in the 1700s
Was the first consul and dictator for life
1814: Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba
King Louis XVIII takes control of France
March of 1815: Napoleon escapes from Elba
March 20 - June 18: Napoleon rules for 100 days
June 18: Defeat at Waterloo
June 22: Napoleon's second abdication
October: Napoleon is exiled to St. Helena
May 5, 1821: Napoleon dies
The Château D'If
Owned by France in a bay off of Marseille
Used as a military fortress and prison
Nobody has ever been known to have escaped
Lower class individuals placed in a dark, underground dungeon with dirty and crowded conditions
Upper class individuals could buy a better cell with windows and a fireplace
No longer in use but tourists can visit it
Marriages in 1800 France
Young girls were often times kept out of public until her parents had decided on a suitable bachelor
Often were arranged, not based on love
Arranged to be beneficial economically or socially for the family
When married, many woman stayed home to raise the family
Marriages typically happened between people of the same class
The Upper Class
Based on power and financial status
Many came from the old royals or nobility
Controlled material production and cultural style
Feared if their children chose lower status jobs
Rode in horse drawn carriages and had personal drivers
Lifestyle includes: theater, opera, entertaining, feasting, dancing, and other lavish activities
Most admired and envied class of French society
Manners are extremely important especially when at dances or feasts
The Middle Class
Also known as the bourgeoisie
Grew out of the old commercial and industrial capitalists
Included bankers, entrepreneurs, doctors, dentists, engineers, architects, accountants, etc.
Education was very important
During the 1800s, the middle class gained more power than before
By mid-century, the wealthier part of the middle class lived much like the upper class
Celebrated by holding grand feasts
Visited the theater often
Wealthy middle class had 10 or more servants
Middle class marriages involved large dowries
The Lower Class
The working class of France
Grew from the peasants
Had lower education if any at all
Usually stayed in the lower class
The lower class was split into three parts: The upper-working class, the middle-working class, and the lower-working class
Higher payed occupations
Highly skilled jobs
Included handicrafts, shipbuilders, and jewelers
The Middle-Working Class
Had smaller pays
Included carpenters, and bricklayers
The Lower-Working Class
Had the lowest paying jobs
Usually involved manual labor jobs
Included day laborers, servants, and farmers
Many woman would not marry and instead work as domestic servants for the middle class due to the better working conditions
How it Relates to
The Count of Monte Cristo
Poverty: When Dantés was believed to be dead, his father had no money to pay his fees. He sold all of his possessions and then fasted for nine days, inevitably starving himself to death.
Napoleon's Reign: Between the time that Napoleon was first exiled and when he returned to power, bonapartists were feared. Many were thrown in jail for the smallest of reasons like Dantés.
Château d'If: The prison that had once held Dantés became a place for tourists. Dantés even went to visit once he was near the end of his revenge.
Marriage: Most marriages weren't based on love. That's why Monsieur Morrel told Dantés how lucky he was to be about to marry Mercédès. Also, when Villefort was talking about choosing a suitable wife based on whether or not Napoleon stayed in power, this was common for the time era.
Upper Class: All of the upper class, and several of the wealthy middle class, were always seen riding around in horse drawn carriages. The fancier the horses or carriage showed how high in status you were. They all had many servants as well. When Dantés visited the opera and had a confrontation with Albert, it would've helped to know that the upper class visited the opera often.
Middle Class: Marriages in the middle class involved large dowries. The topic of a dowry came up several times. When "Sinbad the Sailor" gave a diamond to Morrel to use as Julie's dowry was an important scene. Also, at the end of the novel, Dantés told Mecédès that the dowry for their marriage was burried in Marseilles. This kept her from being penniless