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Development of the Quantum Model of the atom

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Kathleen Kulpa

on 29 January 2018

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Transcript of Development of the Quantum Model of the atom

Atomic Structure
Development of the Quantum Model of the atom
Electrons are in
"areas of probability"

It is referred to as the
electron cloud model
Inverse Relationships
Because all electromagnetic waves travel at the constant speed of light, wavelength and frequency are inversely proportional.

The shorter a wavelength is, the higher its frequency.
Classic Physics Fails!
When solids are heated, they emit radiation over a wide range of wavelengths. Measurements showed that the amount of energy in electromagnetic radiation depends on the wavelength. The problem was, they could not explain long wavelengths and short wavelengths in the same theory.
Examples of
electromagnetic radiation
These examples include low energy microwaves and radio wave to visible light, ultraviolet light and x-rays.

Each type differs by wavelength and frequency
Bohr's Theory of the Atom
Bohr offered an explanation to the spectral lines emitted from a hydrogen atom. Bohr said the electron of hydrogen moved about the nucleus in a circular orbit.
The Photoelectric Effect
In 1905, Albert Einstein used the quantum theory to solve the mystery of the photoelectric effect. He said that a beam of light is really just a stream of particles. He names them photons.

He proposed the dual theory of light. Light can behave as both a wave and a particle.
1900
Plank Solves It!
Plank stated that radiation does not always travel in a wave. It can also travel as a particle.

Plank named these "bundles"
quantum - the smallest quantity of electromagnetic energy that can be emitted or absorbed.
Electromagnetic
Radiation
Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that has an electric field component and a magnetic component. It travels in a wave pattern at the speed of light.
Wavelength expresses the distance of the wave from peak to peak.

Frequency indicates the number of waves past a point in one second.
Principle Energy Levels

The distance from the nucleus
Bohr said that the electron could be located only in orbits that were fixed distances from the nucleus. Like rungs on a ladder.

The orbits closer to the nucleus required less energy than the orbits farther from the nucleus.
ground state refers to the lowest available energy state for an electron within an atom.

excited state refers to a higher energy requirement within an atom, farther from the nucleus
DeBroglie
developed the dual theory of matter. Matter can behave as a wave as well as a particle.

Heisenburg
developed the Uncertainty Principle. It is impossible to know the precise speed and location of an electron at the same time.

Schrodinger
derived an equation to treat the electron as a wave. He developed the quantum model of the atom.
When an electron absorbs energy, it must move to a higher orbit, farther from the nucleus.

When the electron releases the energy, it falls to an orbit closer to the nucleus and the energy is given off as colored light.
The Quantum Model of the Atom

I
sublevels

the shaped areas inside the
principle energy levels

orbitals

the areas that make up the sublevels. The smallest area in which an electron can exist.
In quantum mechanics,
4 quantum numbers

are required
to describe the distribution of electrons in an atom.

These numbers are
derived
from the
mathematical
solutions of
Schrodinger's equations
.
Full transcript