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McMillan preAP Biology Chapter 3 & 4
Transcript of McMillan preAP Biology Chapter 3 & 4
Examples: food, minerals of certain types, refuge from predators, a pollution-free environment, competition for resources 4. Phosphorus Cycle
a. All organisms use phosphorous for synthesizing phospholipids, NADPH, ATP, DNA and RNA
b. Remains in rock & soil minerals, and ocean sediments as inorganic phosphate
c. weathering and soil erosion sends phosphates into streams and rivers, then oceans
d. plants help cycle phosphorous rapidly through an ecosystem 3. Nitrogen Cycle
a. Nitrogen fixation- the conversion from nitrogen gas into ammonia by bacteria and then into nitrates and nitrites
a. once in this form, producers use them to make proteins
b. consumers eat producers and reuse the nitrogen
b. Denitrification- releases nitrogen into atmosphere by conversion by bacteria C. Nutrient Cycles
1. Organisms need nutrients to build tissues and carry out life functions
a. Nutrients pass through biogeochemical cycles too
2. Carbon Cycle
Processes that use or produce carbon:
Biological- photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition
Geochemical- erosion, volcanic activity
Biogeochemical- burial, decomposition, conversion
Human actions- mining, cutting, burning forests and fossil fuels D. Ecological Pyramids
1. Energy Pyramid- shows how much energy is available at each trophic level (only 10% of the energy is transferred up to the next level)
2. Biomass Pyramid- shows the amount of living matter at each trophic level
3. Pyramid of Numbers- shows the number of organisms at each trophic level A. Recycling in the Biosphere
1. Matter is recycled within and between ecosystems
2. Matter is transformed into tissue or passed as waste
3. Biogeochemical cycles- elements, chemical compounds and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and one part of the biosphere to another 3-3 Cycles of Matter 2. Food Chain- Series of steps where organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
3. Food Web- links together all food chains in an ecosystem
4. Each step in a food chain or web is called a trophic level
a. consumers make up higher trophic levels, producers make up lower levels
b. each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy A. Producers
1. All organisms need to get energy from their environment in order to survive.
2. Sunlight is the major source of energy for life on Earth
3. Only plants, some algae, and certain bacteria are producers 3-2 Energy Flow B. Levels of Organization
2. Population- group of individuals, of the same species, that live in the same area
3. Community- populations that live together in a defined area
4. Ecosystem- community and its nonliving matter
5. Biome- ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
6. Biosphere- all the parts of the planet where life exists A. Interactions and Interdependence
1. Ecologists study interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
2. Earth’s organisms live in the biosphere (land, water, air, atmosphere) 3-1 What is Ecology The Biosphere Chapter 3 Notes You have a small garden in your backyard. What are some limiting nutrients (factors) that will affect the success of your garden? Checkpoint B. Water Cycle
1. Evaporation- water changes from liquid to atmospheric gas
2. Transpiration- water from leaves of plants enters atmosphere as gas
3. Condensation- atmospheric gas cools and condenses into liquid droplet form
4. Precipitation- when the
liquid droplets become large
enough to return to Earth 4. Autotrophs (producers)- captures energy from sunlight or chemicals and uses that energy to produce food.
a. the process of autotrophs using light energy to make food is called photosynthesis
CO2 + H2O Carbohydrates + O2
b. the process of autotrophs using chemical energy to make carbohydrates is called chemosynthesis C. Feeding Relationships
-1. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction
Sun/inorganic compoundsAutotrophsHeterotrophs B. Consumers
1. Heterotrophs (consumer)- organisms that rely on other organisms for their food.
a. Herbivore- eat only plants
b. Carnivore- eat animals
b. Omnivore- eat plants and animals
c. Detritovore- feed on dead stuff
d. Decomposer- break down organisms Ecology C. Community Interactions
1. Communities interact in one of three ways:
a. Competition - organisms try to use
the same resources they need to live. Competition often results in one organism dying out.
b. Predation - this occurs when one organism (predator) captures and eats another (prey) B. The Greenhouse Effect
1. The greenhouse effect keeps the temperature on Earth within a good range for life.
2. The gases in the atmosphere trap heat-CO2, CH4, water vapor
3. Heat energy cannot pass back out as easily as light energy enters B. The Niche
1. A niche includes what an organism eats and how it gets its food, as well as the physical conditions, and when and how it reproduces.
“the role an organism plays in its environment”
2. No 2 species can occupy the same niche. 4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
A. Biotic and Abiotic Factors
1. Organisms are influenced by
- biological (biotic) and
- physical (abiotic) factors.
2. Biotic factors include all living things
3. Abiotic factors include climate, humidity, soil type, and other nonliving factors D. Heat Transport in the Biosphere
1. Unequal heating of Earth's surface causes winds and ocean currents.
2. Winds and currents move heat through the biosphere. C. The Effect of Latitude on a Climate
1. Differences in latitude determine the angle of sunlight that hits and then heats the Earth's surface.
2. Differences in heating cause three main climate zones:
a. Polar Zone - very cold areas
b. Temperate Zone - ranges from hot to cold depending on the season.
c. Tropical Zone - always warm 4-1 The Role of Climate
A. What is Climate?
1. Climate is the average yearly condition of temperature and precipitation in a region.
2. It's caused by latitude, winds, ocean currents, and the shape and height of land masses.
3. Climate affects ecosystems, because all
organisms have certain needs for temperature Chapter 4
Ecosystems and Communities Symbiosis - occurs when two species live together in one of three ways:
1. Mutualism - both species benefit from the relationship
What are some examples? D. Ecological Succession
1. As an ecosystem ages, older inhabitants die out and new organisms move in.
2. Ecological Succession is the predictable changes that occur in a community.
a. primary succession
b. secondary succession 2. Commensalism - one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
3. Parasitism - one species benefits by living in or on the other and the other is harmed. Examples?