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Transcript of Discursive
Angelina Fernandez, Megan McKee,
Claire Mummery and Jessica Villalobos
How are arguments for and against vaccination constructed?
Introduction to Discursive Psychology
Introduction to Discursive Psychology
What is Discursive Psychology?
Interdisciplinary study incorporating linguistics, psychology, cultural studies and sociology (Potter, 2012).
The study of how talk and text construct particular versions of reality (Wiggins & Riley, 2010).
It is derived from the social constructionist perspective which holds that knowledge is produced by our social processes.
Does not seek to identify the individual's thoughts.
DP is interested in what the talk is doing, and the consequences of the talk.
2. Collect Data
DP primarily uses naturalistic data.
Limited researcher input.
Can use both audio and visual media - usually transcribed using Jeffersonian Transcription.
Analysing the Data
The Vaccination Debate
Mike Monro – Interviewer
Professor Peter McIntyre – Representative from National Immunisation and Surveillance Centre
Gisele Cooke – Anti-Vaccine GP
Meryl Dorey - Anti-Vaccination Activist
1. Device Spotting
Discursive Psychologists look for particular features within the discourse that represent the social reality of the participants.
Devices are features that form part of how speakers negotiate fact, interest and accountability.
1. Devise a Research Question
Research question will focus on exploring how people manage psychological matters/phenomena.
Discursive Psychologists are not concerned with causality so 'why' questions are generally avoided, 'how' questions are preferable.
4. Our Research Question
How are arguments constructed for and against vaccination?
Emotion is used to construct a particular version of reality and how this assists in backing up an argument.
Comments such as ‘I was so stressed’ may be used in contrast with with cognitive categories or actions for instance ‘I was so stressed with analyzing all the risks involved I didn’t take my child to get their vaccination’.
How speech is constructed and how this reflects on the speaker or subject. Such as ‘we watch films together’ presents this event as a usual routine.
Pronoun use and ‘Footing Shifts’
Swapping between pronouns such as the change from ‘you’ to ‘we’ to ‘I’.
This may influence inclusion and manage accountability with the use of ‘our’ or ‘we’ perhaps reflecting an ‘us’ verse ‘them’ feeling (Kaur, Arumugam and Yunus, 2013). The use of ‘I’ may also be noted in informal discourse with personal pronouns showing feelings such as ‘I think’ or ‘we believe’.
An assessment of another person, this may discredit or manage blame or accountability. For instance ‘I don’t know where Meryl got her information from’ gives a negative assessment of Meryl and discredits her instead of focusing on the site where she received these statistics.
Three Part List
This device is a three-word phrase that is commonly used to make a point and add credibility and authenticity to a claim. For example ‘instant gut reaction’ or 'here, there and everywhere'
Fact and Interest
Applying facts or other points to back up an argument.
How representations are constructed within and constitute of social practices.
For example: explanation of a past event is often done because there is an issue at stake and therefore the story is constructed to point out a particular fact or direct appreciation or blame.
Coding the Data
Use the research question to guide your area of focus and decide which areas and devices to attend to.
Using the devices listed, code the data.
It is better to include borderline examples and cut them out later, rather than excluding them now.
Things to Remember
The goal throughout the analysis is to identify meaning to and for the participants. If you react to the conversation in a particular way, ask yourself why? Look for patterns.
Describe your reactions to the text and explain the reason for these - why do you feel like this?
Always assume literal meaning and be aware of what is NOT being said.
...and most importantly...
Everyone comes to DP with their own culture, interpretation and as a reader, speaker and writer of language.
It is important to remember it is not HOW you identify patterns and interpretations, but rather how you justify and ground these findings within the data.
Giving an assessment of the topic with possible exaggeration. For example ‘I had the worst day of my life because I missed out on the vaccination’.
These may be applied to enhance an argument or may be used ironically.
Extreme Case Formulation
The relationship between sentences such as the continuation of a topic, for instance ‘there’s more’.