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Transcript of Natural Disasters
It is still mostly unknown to science how tornadoes form. There needs to be a humid air stream coming from the gulf of Mexico. There also needs to be a cold, dry air stream coming from the north (Canada) or eastwards from the Rocky Mountains. The final air stream needed for a tornado to form is a jet stream coming from the north-west at a speed of about 150mph. When all three meet, they start to spin into a thunderstorm and can develop into a tornado.
Since 2007 the EF scale has been used to measure the strength of tornadoes.
65-85 MPH light damage
86-110 MPH moderate damage
111-135 MPH considerable damage
136-165 MPH severe damage
166-200 MPH devastating damage
200+ MPH incredible damage
Tornadoes can be detected by storm spotters, normal people interested in helping spot storms, and report them to the National Weather Service. They also use computer programs to analyze doppler radar data to help detect the tornadoes.
Earthquakes form when two tectonic plates rub against each other and cause friction. The most violent earthquakes occur in a subduction zone, which is when one plate is shoved under another.
Earthquakes are measured by the Richter scale, which is only concerned about the amount of energy from a quake and doesn’t say much about what happened. They are also measured by the Mercalli scale that measures how people felt during that quake and the destruction. There is also a moment magnitude scale that measures how the earthquake released its energy by the magnitude and can go above m8.
Earthquakes are detected by a seismometer, which is a tool that measures the vibration in the ground and helps detect when an earthquake is coming.
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Flooding is caused by multiple things because there are three different types of flooding that can occur.
Flash Floods occur with little or no warning
They are caused by lots of rain, different surface conditions, and topography.
Storm Surge Flooding
This type of flooding occurs when moving air and the water create drag. Depending on where the drag begins and the velocity of the wind, water can pile up 7 meters high.
Dam and Levee Failures
When a dam or levee, a structure built to contain water, has a malfunction or doesn't work, the water comes rushing out and create a flash flood.
In most cases a float-tape gauge is placed inside a stilling well to measure the height of the water as it rises and falls during the flood. Other times a stream gauge is used.
Floods are normally detected and monitored by a radar that shows rainstorms. Meteorologists can tell when and how much rain will come. Then they can issue flood warnings and watches.
Tsunamis are formed when there is a sudden displacement of ocean water, volcanic eruptions, landslides, meteorites and most commonly earthquakes from the subduction zone. In the deep ocean tsunamis are barely a threat, but they spread across the ocean very quickly with speeds up to 600mph. When the wave reaches the shore, the friction against the shallows slows it down and raises its height. By the time the tsunami reaches the shore, the water can be up to 100 feet high. A tsunami is like a wall of water that crashes over everything in its path and drags everything back to the ocean.
Tsunamis are measured by tide gauges which measure the height of the ocean and waves.
People can’t see tsunamis that are approaching until they are close enough to shore that there is little time to do anything, but the tide gauges are able to detect them before humans can see them.
By Rebekah Trovinger
There are about 15 total natural disasters.
They are tsunamis, earthquakes, thunderstorms, tornadoes, volcanoes, hurricanes, heat and drought, cold and ice storms, wildfires, avalanches, landslides, snow and hail storms, flooding, pestilence and disease, along with global warming. In this presentation I will be sharing some information about earthquakes, tsunamis, tornadoes, hurricanes, and flooding.
For hurricanes to form the water needs to be 80 degrees Fahrenheit or higher. The water needs to be at least 150 feet deep. The atmosphere needs to be able to sustain thunderstorms and there needs to be heat and moisture in the air. Rapid air cooling is needed along with the release of latent heat.
Scientists measure the destruction of hurricanes using categories.
- Wind speed= 74-95mph
- Wind speed= 96-110mph
- Wind speed= 111-129mph
- Wind speed= 130-156mph
Wind speed= 157mph or higher
Hurricanes are monitored and detected by a doppler radar, which detects rain associated with hurricanes. There are also reconnaissance flights to the eye of the hurricane to help monitor it using advanced military aircraft.
Hurricanes begin their life near the equator and move towards populated areas as they grow and develop. They are most common along the pacific ocean, with the west pacific being the most active.
The most recorded hurricanes in the Atlantic basin was 12 and the least was 2. The most recorded hurricanes in the eastern pacific ocean was 14 with the least being 4. Every year there is a different number of hurricanes recorded, so scientists can't really predict exactly how many there will be each year.
How to prepare for a Hurricane
1. Know all your family evacuation routes.
2. Keep a first aid kit and non-perishable foods on hand.
3. Have lots of batteries and flashlights.
4. Have the right supplies.
New Vocab Words
-heat absorbed or radiated during a change of phase at constant temperature and pressure.
-a small cyclone that arises near a thunderstorm and is sometimes associated with the occurrence of tornadoes.
-the detailed mapping or charting of the features of a relatively small area, district, or locality.
- rapidity of motion or operation; swiftness; speed
-the branch of biology dealing with the form and structure of organisms
-to determine the exact dimensions, capacity, quantity, or force of; measure.
-the science dealing with the occurrence, circulation, distribution, and properties of the waters of the earth and its atmosphere.
- an examination or survey of the general geological characteristics of a region.
Floods are most likely to occur after heavy snow melts or there is a lot of spring rain. The top 12 countries that are the most ceceptible to flooding are Rwanda, Benin, Vietnam, Thailand, Sri-Lanka, Pakistan, Laos, Mozambique, Cambodia, India, China, and Bangladesh. Pretty much anywhere near a river, lake, pond, or somewhere along the coast is likely to have at least one or two floods every 5-7 years. Some places will get more or less than that.
How to Prepare for a Flood
Make an emergency kit
Have a list of emergency phone numbers on display
Make a household flood plan
Floods are most common after long periods of rain or snow. A dam or levee failure flood is the only type of flood that can occur a anytime.
In the US Tornadoes are most common in an area known as tornado alley which is most of the following states: Nebraska, Illinois, Idaho, Indiana, Mississippi, Kansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, and Texas. These states are the most common areas in the US for tornadoes to occur.
How to Prepare for a Tornado
Make a survival kit and a family communications plan to keep in touch
Stay tuned in on a reliable news source
Watch the sky and be alert for sudden changes in the weather
Learn about tornadoes and know the terms that will be used to explain the tornado and what to do
It's estimated that there are over 1,000 tornadoes per year in the us. Oklahoma gets about 52 tornadoes on average per year.
Earthquakes are most common around the edges of the tectonic plates or near fault lines (example is San-Francisco)
How to Prepare for an Earthquake
Learn what to do during an Earthquake
Learn where to take cover in all rooms of house/work
Make an emergency kit and make sure everyone knows where it is
Make sure everyone knows or has phone numbers so they can contact family and friends in an emergency
Get first aid training so if someone is hurt you can treat it with a first aid kit
It is estimated that there are about 120,000-140,000 earthquakes per year. Only about 100,000 can be felt, and about 100 cause damage. Small earthquakes happen several hundred times a day. Medium ones happen about once a month. Bigger ones happen about once a year.
Tsunamis are most common near subduction zones because most tsunamis are caused by earthquakes. Some of theses places are the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, Chile, The Philippines, and Japan
How to Prepare for a Tsunami
Make an evacuation route and practice it
Use a radio to keep informed of warnings and watches
Discuss tsunamis with your family
Make a supplies kit in case you need a first aid kit, food, water etc.
About two tsunamis occur per year. About every 15 years there is one ocean wide tsunami.