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Transcript of 01_04H_WH_Chantavia
Pottery decorated with gold or silver was prized.
The detail of Islamic architecture has complex designs.
Patterns and arabesques appear on buildings and smaller artwork. The buildings tended to be simple on the outside but ornate from floor to ceiling inside. Stucco, stone, and wood were used for decoration.
The Chinese papermaking process was faster and easier than preparing parchment or papyrus. Also, it was more accesible. Intellectual Traditional political concepts in Islam include leadership by successors to the Prophet known as Caliphs.Thus the subsequent Islamic empires were known as Caliphates.
Alongside the growth of the Umayyad empire, the major political development within Islam in this period was the sectarian split between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims; this had its roots in a dispute over the succession of the Caliphate.
Sunni Muslims believed the caliphate was elective, and any member of the Prophet's tribe, Quraysh, might serve as one. Sunni is what most modern-day Islamic political movements are founded in.
Shi'ites, on the other hand, believed the caliphate should be hereditary in the line of the Prophet, and thus all the caliphs, with the exception of Ali, were usurpers. Non-Muslims had to pay a tax, known as a jizya.
Jews and Christians who didn't want to pay the tax would convert to Muslim to avoid the tax.
In the Abbasid Caliphate, People of the Book and other non-Muslims sometimes served the government in high-ranking positions.
As the Abbasid armies continued to spread the borders, more groups of people came under Islamic control. Islamic law was universal throughout the empire.
The official language of the empire was Arabic. When more people learned Arabic, they found that it was easier to communicate.
Trade increased throughout the caliphate and beyond, with goods and information changing hands over long distances. Information from different cultures blended in the empire. Economic Al-Ma'mun founded the House of Wisdom, in Baghdad, attracted scholars from surrounding continents. Its main purpose was to translate great amounts of literature and knowledge into Arabic. Scholars preserved literature and works of history by patiently copying and translating works by Aristotle, Euclid, and other important thinkers of ancient Persia, Greece, and Rome. They also sought to understand the information and organize it into the teachings of Islam. Social Political