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USER EXPERIENCE (UX) DESIGN

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Linda Schotborgh

on 18 February 2015

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Transcript of USER EXPERIENCE (UX) DESIGN

U
SER E
X
PERIENCE
(UX) DESIGN

HOW HUMAN COGNITIVE LIMITATIONS AFFECT
Human Computer Interaction -
U
SER E
X
PERIENCE (UX) DESIGN




By Linda Schotborgh
CSUF MSIT Program

U
SER E
X
PERIENCE (UX) DESIGN
Topics

MOST COMMON UX ACTIVITIES

HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION (HCI)

U
SER E
X
PERIENCE (UX) STRATEGY
REFERENCES
"Questions about user
experience can have different answers
depending on the exact circumstances
." (Whitenton, 2015)
Buxton, Bill. "Sketching User Experiences - Getting the Design Right and the Right Design." EbookBrowsee.net. Morgan Kufmann, 23 June 2013. Web. 15 Feb. 2015. <http://ebookbrowsee.net/sketching-user-experiences-getting-the-design-right-and-the-right-design-interactive-technologies-pdf-d494549426>.

Carey, J., D. Galletta, J. Kim, D. Te’eni, B. Wildemuth, and P. Zhang. “The Role of
Human–Computer Interaction in Management Information Systems Curicula: A
Call to Action.” Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 13,
2004, pp. 357–379.

Farrell, Susan, and Jakob Neilson. "Nielsen Norman Group." UX Research, Training, and Consulting. Neilson Normand Group, 2013. Web. 15 Feb. 2015. <http://www.nngroup.com/reports/user-experience-careers>.

HCI Intl Conf. "3rd International Conference on Design, User Experience and Usability." HCI International 2014. Springer, 2014. Web. 15 Feb. 2014. <file:///C:/Users/Owner/Downloads/DUXU14-Advert.pdf>, <http://2014.hci.international/>.

Kendall & Kendall. "Systems Analysis and Design; Human Computer Interaction - Chapter 14." Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall, 2011. Web. 15 Feb. 2015. <http://www.prenhall.com/behindthebook/0132240858/pdf/Kendall_Feature2_Human_Computer_Interface.pdf>.

Kendall & Kendall. "Systems Analysis and Design, 9e; Human Computer Interaction - Chapter 14 - Slide Show." Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall, 2014. Web. 15 Feb. 2015. <https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CD8QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmercury.webster.edu%2Faleshunas%2FCOSC%25202810%2FPowerPoint%2Fkendall_sad9_pp_14.ppt&ei=YGfiVLqdGMuigwTp0YHgAw&usg=AFQjCNHwtOQnAA0HTNazxNYuNFuG83ngWg&sig2=WY0R6jobdL04KJjftePjkA&bvm=bv.85970519,d.eXY>.

Kirschner, Paul A. "Cognitive Load Theory: Implications of Cognitive Load Theory on the Design of Learning." Elsevier Science Ltd, Feb. 2002. Web. 15 Feb. 2015. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959475201000147>.

Neil, Theresa. "Mobile Design. Strategic Solutions." Mobile Design. Strategic Solutions. N.p., 2014. Web. 16 Feb. 2015. <http://www.slideshare.net/fullscreen/theresaneil/mobile-design-strategic-solutions/17>.

Oviatt, Sharon. "Human-Centered Design Meets Cognitive Load Theory: Designing Interfaces That Help People Think." Incaa Designs, 2006. Web. 15 Feb. 2015. <https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCMQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdl.acm.org%2Fcitation.cfm%3Fid%3D1180831&ei=SmriVOSKNM_egwSA4YOACg&usg=AFQjCNEtl2QY2A1j7KgVoezN-V5nthy7lQ&sig2=1gFIG5KU_7Z8DznvQhVWSw&bvm=bv.85970519,d.eXY>.

Quesenbery, Whitney, and Kevin Brooks. "Storytelling for User Experience - Crafting Stories for Better Design." Rosenfeld Media, 11 Apr. 2014. Web. 15 Feb. 2014. <https://uxdesigntherapy.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/storytelling_for_user_experience.pdf>.

SAP. "Learn the Basics Archives - SAP User Experience Community." SAP User Experience Community. SAP, 2014. Web. 15 Feb. 2015.

Whitenton, Katheryn. "Minimize Cognitive Load to Maximize Usability." Nielsen Norman Group - Evidence-Based User Experience Research, Training, and Consulting. Nielsen Norman Group, 22 Dec. 2013. Web. 15 Feb. 2015. <http://www.nngroup.com/articles/minimize-cognitive-load/>.

Whitenton, Katheryn. "Top 3 IA Questions about Navigation Menus." Nielsen Norman Group - Evidence-Based User Experience Research, Training, and Consulting. Nielsen Norman Group, 4 Jan. 2015. Web. 15 Feb. 2015. <http://www.nngroup.com/articles/ia-questions-navigation-menus/>.
The “fit” among the human, computer, and task affects performance and well-being.
Users have control over how the information is presented and thus control their task for best cognitive fit.
"Information architecture principles are a good starting point
Best outcomes are achieved by
combining theoretical knowledge with direct UX research
that pro
ves whether your design works for your target audience" (Whitenton, 2015)
Visual Analysis of Databases

Tableau is a well designed software package because it goes much further in extending user capabilities to perform their tasks through the use of pivot table techniques.

HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION (HCI)
Topics
USER INTERFACE DESIGN

USER-CENTERED DESIGN

HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Focus:
"Users can adapt" to the information system design

Disadvantage:
"Requires interface instruction, training, and practice to
match users interactions with system’s processing capabilities
"
(Oviatt, 2006)
Focus:
"Model a
users’ natural behavior
, including any constraints on their ability to attend, learn, and perform

Benefit:
Design
intuitive interfaces
that are easier to learn and freer of performance errors"
(Oviatt, 2006)
Design intuitive interfaces from an HCI perspective
to:
minimize users’ cognitive load
free up mental resources for improved performance
user remains more attuned to their environment
Working Memory
USER-CENTERED DESIGN
Purpose
USER INTERFACE DESIGN
(Past) Technology-Driven
USER INTERFACE DESIGN
(Present) Human-Centered / User Centered
Mandate making Web sites and electronic services
accessible to the disabled
Established by U.S. and European Union (EU)
Usability guidelines provide HCI requirements
USER-CENTERED DESIGN
Usability Guidelines Mandate
Designing For HCI Means:


Ensuring system functionality and usability
, providing effective user interaction support, and enhancing a pleasant user experience.”
(Carey et al., 2004, p. 358)
HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Overview
“The overarching goal is to achieve both organizational and individual user effectiveness and efficiency. To reach these goals, managers an
d developers

need to be knowledgeable about the interplay
among users, tasks, task contexts, information technology (IT), and the environments in which systems are used.” (Carey et al., 2004, p. 358)
HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Basis of HCI
"Understand HCI concepts
Consider interfaces in the light of HCI issues"
Apply industry best practices - "standard design concepts to computers
in new ways because of an HCI approach
"
(Kendall, 2011)
HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Ensure Needs Are Met
Both Organizational and Individual User
USER EXPERIENCE (UX) DESIGN
Summary

USER EXPERIENCE (UX) DESIGN
Conclusion

Prototype early
Repeatedly elicit feedback
from users about their experiences with prototyped designs
Refine the design iteratively based on the suggested changes (Kendall, 2011)
HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Main Tactic of HCI in Systems Analysis and Design

Usability surveys assist to
gain insights

"
as you become concerned about how humans’ attitudes color the way they feel about technology and their tasks, and
whether their

attitudes hinder or enhance their experience
." (Kendall, 2011)
HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Enhance Your HCI Perception
Provides a way to organize thinking about whether users will accept and use information technology
Used to shape training after a system has been developed and/or judge system acceptance
Receive user prototype reactions early in development to
increase the likelihood of adoption and use
(Kendall, 2011)
HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Attitude
"Examine the task to be done and
consider the fit

among the human, computer, and task
Identify what obstacles exist
for users in their attempts to accomplish their assigned tasks
Keep in mind the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use from
TAM
Consider usability. Examine the usage environment by creating use case scenarios that
depict what is going on
between users and the technology
Use the information you have gained beforehand to figure out the physical and organizational environmental characteristics
Design with prototyping to accommodate diverse users and users with disabilities" (Kendall, 2011)
HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Guidelines
"Physical considerations of HCI design include vision, hearing, and touch. Physical disabilities and limitations should be taken into consideration during task and interface design." (Kendall, 2011)

Human sensory capabilities and limitations are physical considerations that "
an application should be able to
:
compensate,
overcome, or
replace human senses to a varying extent"
(Kendall, 2011)
HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Physical Considerations
The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) has created usability standards that
you can explore
on http://www.usabilitynet.org/ tools/r_international.htm.
"A form may be used to survey users of prototypes on key usability and ergonomic factors." (Categories based on Zhang, Carey, Te’eni, and Tremaine, 2005, table of HCI concerns)

"Another approach is to write up use case scenarios for the system. These are helpful in examining usability concerns." (Kendall, 2011)
Extended TAM - TAM was proposed by Davis in 1989; he and others later refined and improved it.
Challenge:
"The design of spoken, pen-based, and multimodal systems
requires modeling modality-specific features and communication patterns
upon which the system must be built." (Oviatt, 2006)

Strategy:
"Identify and model major sources of variability in human input that the system must process, especially difficult-to-process ones
Devise interface techniques capable of effectively but transparently reducing these difficult sources of variability" (Oviatt, 2006)


HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Research - Example 1
"All humans have limitations in their physical capabilities. Some are immediately visible, others are not." (Kendall, 2011)

One of the best ways to ensure the broadest possible accommodation is to:

Begin
designing from an HCI perspective
"

(Kendall, 2011)

Primary concern will always be assisting a user in accomplishing a task, set by the organization, with the use of technology. (Kendall, 2011)
HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Considering Human Limitations, Disabilities, and Design

HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Research - Example 1
Solution:

Provide a
structured form-based interface

to eliminate up to 80% of all the interruptions in the smooth flow of speech that the same person completing the same task would have uttered using a less constrained interface. (Oviatt, 2006)

Results:
"Reduced cognitive load substantially with reduced planning demands from speaking progressively longer utterances.
Interruptive system error messages are nearly eliminated, because
errors are avoided
." (Oviatt, 2006)
Results:
"Interruptive system error messages are nearly eliminated, because
errors are avoided
Leverage a more usable and robust system by
modeling users’ pre-existing behavior

and language patterns, rather than attempting to retrain strongly entrenched patterns
Transparently guide users’ input toward processability, using techniques that are neither noticed nor objectionable" (Oviatt, 2006)

HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Research - Example 1
Challenge:
"People are experienced at communicating multimodally.
People will use the input mode

they judge to be least error prone
for conveying specific content, including
switching modes if an error is encountered.

Language can be simpler and easier to process when communicating multimodally rather than unimodally." (Ovaitt, 2006)

Strategy:
"Model users’ natural multimodal communication patterns" (Oviatt, 2006)
HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Research - Example 2
Solution:
"Build a fusion-based multimodal interface that gives users the
flexibility to exercise their own intuitions
about when to use one mode, the other, or both, thereby leveraging greater robustness" (Oviatt, 2006)

Results:
"86% of all
task-critical errors could be avoided
simply by making a second input mode available to people
Users respond to dynamic positive changes in their own working memory limitations and cognitive load" (Oviatt, 2006)
HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Research - Example 2

Results:
"In a telecommunications study, error analyses revealed that up to
86% of all task-critical errors could be avoided
simply by making a second input mode available to people. Multimodal interfaces support substantially improved error avoidance and recovery.
Apart from error handling, users respond to dynamic changes in their own working memory limitations and cognitive load by shifting to more multimodal communication as load increases with task difficulty. As a result, a flexible multimodal interface supports users in
self-managing their cognitive load and minimizing related performance errors
while solving complex real-world tasks.
In summary, the human-centered design of multimodal interfaces enables users to adapt effectively in a way that expands their range of computer-supported problem solving abilities." (Oviatt, 2006)

HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Interface Research - Example 2
Future Considerations:
"Additional important user-centered design approaches involve

user-adapted (e.g., to expertise level, native language) and
real-time adaptive interfaces (e.g., to a user’s current focus of attention),

in which the
system adapts to specifics of the user and his or her performance status
.

From a user-centered design perspective, we know that users can and do adapt more to systems than the reverse. Nonetheless, as adaptive systems become more common and increase in utility and sophistication, the long-term research agenda will be the development of mutually adaptive human-computer interfaces." (Oviatt, 2006)
HCI DESIGN STRATEGY
Mutually Adaptive Human-Computer Interfaces
(Farrell, 2013)
(Kirschner, 2002)
(
(Kendall, 2014)
(Neil, 2014)
(Neil, 2014)
(Neil, 2014)
(Neil, 2014)
(Neil, 2014)
(Neil, 2014)
(Neil, 2014)
(Neil, 2014)
(Neil, 2014)
“User experience” (UX) concerns how a person thinks, feels, and behaves during all phases of using an interactive system. UX design becomes fundamentally important in new and emerging mobile, ubiquitous and omnipresent computer-based contexts. The scope of design, user experience and usabilty (DUXU) extends to all aspects of the user’s interaction with a product/service, how it is perceived, learned, and used, and addresses design knowledge, methods and practices, with a focus on a deeply human-centered processes. Usabiltly, usefulness, and appeal are fundamental requirements for effective user experience design.
How a person thinks, feels, and behaves
Fundamentally important for emerging mobile, ubiquitous and omnipresent computer-based contexts
How the product/service is perceived, learned, and used, with a focus on deeply human-centered processes
Usability, usefulness, and appeal

(HCI Intl Conf, 2014)
(Neil, 2014)
"
U
SER E
X
PERIENCE" (UX)
Introduction
Short Term Memory
Long Term Memory
(Kirschner, 2002)


"Stories can:

describe a context or situation
illustrate problems
be a launching point for a design discussion
explore a design concept
describe the impact of a new design" (Quesenbery, 2014)
U
SER E
X
PERIENCE (UX) STRATEGY
Storytelling (Agile Tool)
Provides a Common Vocabulary
"In order to create successful products, it is as important (if not more) to
invest in the design of the design process
, as in the design of the product itself." (Buxton, 2013)
U
SER E
X
PERIENCE (UX) STRATEGY


Zhang, P., J. Carey, D. Te’eni, and M. Tremeaine. “Integrating Human–Computer
Interaction Development into the Systems Development Life Cycle: A
Methodology.” Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 15,
2005, pp. 512–543.
APPENDIXES
Appendix B:
THE DISCIPLINES OF
U
SER E
X
PERIENCE DESIGN
(Farrell, 2013)
Appendix A:
HOW UX FITS INTO THE BIG PICTURE
(Farrell, 2013)
(Farrell, 2013)
Usability Guidelines:

Chunking content to optimizing response times
Avoid visual clutter (redundant links, irrelevant images)
Build on existing mental models
(best practices)
Offload tasks (show a picture, re-display previously entered information or set a smart default)
USER-CENTERED DESIGN
Minimizing Cognitive Load
(Whitenton, 2013)
A METHOD TO ACHIEVING GOOD
U
SER E
X
PERIENCE
(SAP, 2014)
Full transcript