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Transcript of Reproductive Technology
Eliza Johnson Reproductive Technology Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1, also known as Steinert disease) is a Trinucleotide repeat disorder and the cause of this genetic disorder is from chromosome 19 of the DMPK gene, where this chromosome is constantly being repeated.
The effects of Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 is impaired mental development, muscle weakness in the face, throat, hands and feet. Muscle weakness results in loss of facial expression, eyelids droop and can partially cover pupils, the control of chewing and swallowing is impaired, drooling, impaired movements of lips and tongue, unclear speech and much more. Other effects are Myotonia, which is muscle stiffness followed by muscle contraction, Cardiac symptoms, Cataracts, Hair loss, Oro-dental problems, Gastrointestinal symptoms, Hormone/Endocrine disorders, Fatigue, Infections, Peripheral nerve symptoms, Neuropsychological symptoms. Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 There are four types of DNA mutations they are:
P – Point mutation, or any insertion/deletion entirely inside one gene
D – Deletion of a gene or genes
C – Whole chromosome extra, missing, or both (see chromosomal aberrations)
T – Trinucleotide repeat disorders: gene is extended in length Types of DNA mutation Structure and Function of DNA DNA controls the formation of cells in your body, the products they release and everything they do. DNA is found in the cells nucleus (the control centre of the cell) in the chromosomes (which are composed of DNA strands). DNA is in a shape like a coiled ladder (a double helix), the sides of the "ladder" are made up of alternating subunits of sugars and phosphates and the "ladder rings" are pairs of nitrogen bases, Adenine and Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine. The sequence of these bases forms a code, which controls the production of proteins in the cell. A section of the DNA that codes for a specific protein is called a gene. The Double Helix structure of DNA allows it to replicate easily due to the weak hydrogen bonds that unzip quickly. The structure allows a lot of information to be stored in small space as the double helix curves. DNA and Genes Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an assisted reproductive technology that allows an embryo to be tested for genetic abnormalities.
It would be used during an IVF treatment, usually for couples who are experiencing repeated miscarriages or who are at risk for having a child with a chromosomal or genetic abnormality. What is PGD? PGD can be performed by sampling the developing egg/embryo at different timepoints.
Reproductive Genetics Institute (RGI) can test polar body, balstomere, and blastocyst/trophectoderm samples to customize and obtain the most accurate diagnosis for embryos.
PGD takes place during an IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) after a fertilized egg, or embryo, has been created. PGD involves taking one or two cells from the embryo, and then testing these cells for genetic diseases.
Removing these cells does not harm the embryo. If the cells tested seem to be healthy, that embryo can then be transfer to the woman's uterus during the embryo transfer. How does PGD work/assist While PGD lowers the risk of a child having the genetic disease being tested for, and lowers the risk of a miscarriage due to chromosomal abnormalities, PGD does not guarantee a genetically healthy child. Miscarriage is also still possible. Outcome of PGD Year 10
By Eliza Johnson
Lachlan Clancy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LGR2U6v2IUs&feature=related Reproductive Organs http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=LLMfDC_q8UY&NR=1 Reproductive Organs The vagina is part of the female reproductive organ on a female. This organ is the birth canal when giving birth to children. It joins the cervix to the outside of the vagina. It is also the organ where the penis is inserted to ejaculate when having intercourse.
During menstruation the blood sheds and leaves the body through the vagina.
As shown in the diagram the vagina is at the bottom where the opening is as it is the gateway to the outside of the body Vagina Testes The testes are part of the male reproductive organ. The are found two sacs called the scrotum. They are filled with sperm which when connected to the ova can create life. They are of the body as they need a different body temperature inside to create sperm. The important parts of the male reproductive system as without them you would not be able to create sperm and have a child. They are one of the most sensitive parts of the males body and are very fragile. Pregnancy A usual pregnancy lasts about 9 months. There are many stages to pregnancy and the foetus development from conception to birth. From day 1 the fertilization happens and all chromosomes are presented and human life begins. Day 6 the embryo implants into the uterus. By the end of the third week the baby's backbone and nervous system start forming. In week 7 the baby starts to kicks and swim and in week 8 all the organs have been developed. Week 10 the baby can breathe. Months 5 and 6 the baby practices breathing and the baby is kicking and hiccupping. The last few months the baby starts to know how the mother works and sleeps the same time as the mother. There are many problems to do with pregnancy. These include problems with the mother and problems when the women is pregnant. Some issues with the women is asthma, weight problems, HIV, STI and some issues when pregnant could be a miscarriage, fetal problems and placental abruption. STI can be passed from mother to baby which can cause problems for the child in their future life. A Miscarriage occurs in 20% of all pregnancies and can be a very hard thing to go through. It is where the baby is bleed out and there is no way to stop them and they usually occur in 20 weeks of the pregnancy. In Vitro Fertilization(IVF)
IVF is not allowed in the catholic tradition as they believe that it separates aspects of marriage. They believe it is a mortal sin and the sperm donor is committing a mortal sin. They believe that a lot of IVF are left frozen in laboratories as if they are goods not a child and they are not the way God wanted it to be.
Another issue is selective reduction as people believe that picking your child and murdering the others are absolutely wrong.
Other issues are that IVFs have accidently been given to the wrong mothers.
Another large issue is that many babies are born with problems and disabilities as they have been processed the wrong way. This causes a lot of concern with people doing IVF. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis
There is a very large debate weather PGD should be allowed. There is a large belief that you should just leave the baby alone and not tamper with its gender and be grateful with whatever gender the baby comes as.
Many people believe it as a sin going against the natural way a baby grows and develops.
It’s a also believed that tampering with qualities of your child can impact them in a harmful way
Many people have great debates over this topic as it can be helpful finding problems with babies but can also harm them with tampering their natural genes. http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/you-are-pregnant/pregnancy-complications.cfm
http://www.mydr.com.au/womens-health/female-reproductive-organs First method = the pill
Second method = the male condom
Third method = vasectomy
Fourth method = female sterilisation
Fifth method = the coil
Sixth method = withdrawal method
Seventh method = contraceptive method Different Methods of Contraception Conception occurs when a man's sperm fertilizes a woman's egg. Preparations for pregnancy actually begin in a woman's body about two weeks before conception occurs. After a woman's menstrual period ends, levels of the female hormone oestrogen begin to rise.
While the lining grows thicker, an egg is maturing in a woman's ovary. Women have two ovaries, one of either side of the uterus, the organ that holds a developing baby. Near the middle of a woman's menstrual cycle, the egg is released and travels from the ovary to the fallopian tube. A fallopian tube connects each ovary to the uterus. Hair-like projections in the fallopian tube push the egg to the mid-point of the tube, where it waits to be fertilized Process of Conception Conception Female Oestrogen is produced in the Ovum Process of Oestrogen Female: Oestrogen Male Testosterone is produced in the Testes Process of testosterone Male: Testosterone Here you will find out the different hormones in both male and female. Sex Hormones Step six: Generally, on the day of the egg retrieval, the patient will be told to start progesterone. This medication can come in many forms including injections and vaginal suppositories. This medication will be taken each day (please follow the steps the clinic has outlined for your case). On or about fourteen days after the embryo transfer a blood pregnancy test (HCG) is ordered to see if indeed the transfer has worked and there is a pregnancy. If the test is positive, an ultrasound will be performed two weeks later to confirm the pregnancy. If everything goes as planned then at about 10 weeks the patient will be released to her obstetrician. Step five: Embryo transfers simply deliver the embryos into the uterus. There is no need for sedation or anesthesia. It may not feel any different from an annual Pap smear.
A speculum is placed into the vagina. The embryos (usually no more then 3) are placed in a catheter along with a small amount of fluid, and then the tiny plastic tube is introduced into the uterus through the cervix and the embryo(s) are transferred into the endometrial cavity.
After the procedure, the patient will need to rest in bed for one hour, with her head down slightly and feet up. After going home, she will need to rest in bed for the rest of the day. On the next day she can resume non-strenuous activity. Please note that each clinic has their own protocol and will advise the patient to follow their specified directions. Step four: Directly after the egg retrieval, they are taken into the lab. The eggs are put into a Petri dish with a culture medium. The dish is placed then placed in an incubator which mimics the conditions of the human body (temperature etc.) The sperm is then placed into the medium with the eggs for fertilization.
The embryos are monitored daily. If the fertilization and growth are normal, the embryo transfer can be completed within three to five days. Step three: The IVF clinic will recommended that the Intended Father or Sperm Donor not ejaculate for at least two days prior the egg retrieval. To maintain potency, the semen specimen needs to be delivered immediately prior to the egg retrieval. Some clinics may provide a private area for masturbation and collection. Alternately the semen can be collected at home and brought to the clinic within a certain specified time frame. The clinic will give the patient the proper guidelines for semen collection. Step two: Most egg retrievals from the ovaries are completed between 34 and 36 hours after the HCG injection. The timing is extremely important here to allow the RE the best chance of a successful fertilization.
Aspiration of the eggs is guided by ultrasound and is typically done in the clinic with IV sedation to minimize nausea and discomfort. The Intended Mother or Egg Donor usually spends an hour in the recovery room and then is released to return home.
After the retrieval some women may experience a small amount post retrieval discomfort or bleeding. Those experiences are completely normal, however, if fever, extreme abdominal discomfort, or excessive bleeding are experienced the woman should call the clinic immediately. Step one: Although most women usually develop a single egg per month, most Reproductive Endocrinologists (RE) want to maximize the number of eggs retrieved in an IVF cycle. To do this the Intended Mother or Egg Donor will take medication to produce several follicles at one time.
The clinic will monitor egg development by using ultrasound and checking hormone blood levels. When the follicles reach maturity the patient will receive an injection of HCG (human chronic gonadotrophin) usually late at night or early morning. This will be the start of the final phase of the egg development. The patient may be asked to limit activity during this part of cycle. Steps of IVF In vitro fertilization is the process of a female egg being fertilised with sperm outside of the body in a Petri dish.
IVF is a major treatment for infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. In Vitro Fertilization