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What Are Medical Interventions?
Transcript of What Are Medical Interventions?
Homer wrote both the Illiad and the Odessey
He described over 150 wounds found in the human body- But what was more suprising was that he wrote these with anatomical accuracy!
Recorced all care given
To a lesser extent- recorded patient's feelings- not about the type of treatment given to each wound.
Medicine began to rapidly expand Sophists Sophists were thought to be the wise men of ancient greece
Physicians began to use a "sophistic" form of writing by logging in all measures of their craft in the study of medicine Hippocrates of Cos (c. 460 - 380 bce) Thought to be the "father of medicine"
Known to be a practiced physician of the Asclepiads (a guild of physicians that practiced under the god Asclipius, or the god of healing)
Has attributed to over 60 tmedical treatments in his time, although there are many conflicting veiwpoints on this matter.
Opened his own medical school in Cos. The First Greccian Medical School Opened in Cnidus in 700 BC
Focused on the practice of observing patients
The school was not very successful due to their lack of medical sources Hippocratic Oath Written by Hippocrates in ancient greece
Swears medical professionals to practice medicine ethically and honestly
Has been modified several times
Is still relevant today Roman Medicine Roman Medicine always favored the value of oprevention of diseases rather than treatment. Public health was very often promoted by the roman government, using bath houses and aqeducts. Medicine in Rome The Romans were highly influenced by Greece medicine- The first doctors to appear in Rome were prisoners of war from Greece
Roman medicine revolved heavily around Hippocrates writings Important Roman Medicine Influences Dioscorides Greek Physician who practiced in ancient Rome and wrote a five volume book called De Materia Medica Soranus Greek physician who practiced in ancient Rome and worked as a cheif representative of a Roman medical school Galen Greek physician who was very imortant to Western Medical Science.
Performed public demonstations of anatomical dissections of corpses. Influential Roman Medical Tools Roman medical tools were the most advanced of their time.
Tools included a large variety including anything from tools for dental work to tools used for putting fractured bones back into place. Medieval Medicine Health in medieval times was quite disgusting. The townspeople had no evidence of disease prevention, leading to an aray of health problems.
No antibiotics were invented until the 1800s
The most popular disease cure was "blood-letting". Medieval Medical Treatment Mainly the wealthy were the ones to get medical treatment
townspeople who lived in villages never recieved help from doctors
Most medical treatments were found from the earth, including worms, urine, excretes from animals, etc. and were not given by an official doctor. Early 1700's Medicine At this point in the development of the world, many new species were being discovered, as well as the occurence of arguments over these new discoveries. For Example, many scholars had a lengthy arguement about the discovery of germs- did germs look like the human body in a miniature form or extremely complex and always developing. Important People of the 1700's Francis Bacon Helped to influence the development of anatomy and physiology Marie Francis Bichat Helped in the discovery of tissues being different in organs Giovanni Morgagni Helped to discover the relationship between anatomy and disease
He was also important to the study of pathology Important People of The 1700's Percivil Pott Helped to find a high incidence of cancer in chimney sweeps Edward Jenner Developed the first vaccine in an effort to prevent smallpox Franz Mesmer Developed a controversial way to cure disease The Future of Medicine Cleanliness In an effort to promote cleanliness, the people of the 1700's instituted sewer systems as well as the use of water cleaning products. Medicine The first antiseptic procedures were invented to be used in surgery as well as the development of the germ theory. Civil War Medicine When the war began, only 87 medical surgeons were serving
When the war ended, more than 11,000 men were serving in the medical corps. The war caused much discomfort in the army. Many , if not all of the soldiers lived in a time of uncleanliness, where a lot of disease was sure to come.
The medical industry was needed very much at this time, because outbreaks of disease as well as starvation occurances were not scarce. Diseases in the Civil War Food Poisoning In the army, there was a large number of meals that were not being cooked correctly, and the soldiers were affected with internal discomfort. Surgical Fevers When surgeons would perform surgeries, the patients would start to recover, and then start to run a fever and die the next day. Treating Wounds Surgeons in the Civil War often used a few commonly used dissinfectants such as carbonic acid, iodine, sodium hypochlorite, and many others. The problem during this time was that wounds were allowed to become majorly infected before surgeons could dissinfect them.
There was often no cure for the soldiers that were wounded in the abdomen because little was believed to be helpful. World War I Medicine Although many casualties were suffered in World War I, the lasting effect of the war was the post traumatic stress disorder. During this time, it was known as "shell shock". Symptoms commonly included hysteria, limb paralysis, and the inability to speak. World War I also brought blood transfusions. It was also noticed that sodium citrate helped to serve in unclotting blood in arteries. Although transfusion technology would not allow direct person to person transfusions, blood could still be collected, refridgerated, and stored for days before transfusion to a patient. The Use of Artificial Limbs By the end of the war, over 41,000 soldiers were missing at least one limb.
Limb building was a process that needed a lot of work, but when factories finally reamped their factory production to the need of the product, limb attachment became a well known process. Facial Reconstruction Men were suffering from terrible facial injuries during the first world war. A new transformation process was becoming availiable to soldiers who were not comfortable with their newly found and/or life threatening facial injuries. However, facial reconstruction processes could never be completely successful. Most wounds still remained noticeable and permanent. During the war, the military's top priority was to make such that the medical services were working ship-shape. They wanted to make sure that every casualty was taken off of the battle field, cared for, and returned to duty. put a lot of pressure on the medical services because they wanted to perform well World War II Medical Advances Reduced the impact of malaria (wanted soldiers to be safer on the battlefield and to suffer less casualties due to disease)
Advances in combat surgery helped to save hundreds of lives and paved a path to better quality surgery.
Miracle drugs were used for the first time to fight disease and infection in the body (penicillin and sulfas) Conclusion Questions 1. Treatment and prevention have changed a lot overtime by becoming better and better. As diseases change and evolve, so does medicine and I believe that this is a very good pattern for our world to follow because of all of the amazing discoveries that we have made as well as the many more that are to come. 2. If I had lived in one of the villages in the medieval medicine period, there would have been almost no chance of me recovering because the doctors would only treat the wealthy and health care in the villages consisted mainly of herbal remedies that would have been administered by nonhealthcare professionals. 3. I believe that in the year 2050 we will have had many new medical strides in history because we will have found the cure for cancer as well as have access to new antibiotics that can be used in the future.