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The Iron Curtain

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kayla marie

on 27 April 2010

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Transcript of The Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain By Christie, Cerena, and Kayla (1945-1991) Definition: a term used to describe the ideological boundary that separated Eastern and Western Europe into two parts, democracy and communist. 1.)Even before the Second World War, tension had been building up between the West and the Soviet Union. This tension could be traced back as early as the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920, when the United States supported the movement against the Bolsheviks. 2.) During the course of the Second World War, however, the Soviet Union was united with the West against the Axis forces. 3.) Once World War II drew to a close, the Soviet Union began to dominate many of its surrounding countries. 4.)Growing suspicion that the Soviet Union may be building an empire prompted Winston Churchill to coin the phrase, “the Iron Curtain” during his “Sinews of Peace” address on March 5, 1946 at Westminster college in Fulton, Missouri. Actions and Events Dureing 1.)the Russian occupation zones in Germany and Austria were sealed off by army patrols, and threats were directed against Turkey and Greece 2.)Truman Doctrine, under which immediate aid was given to Turkey and Greece.( 12, March 1947) 3.)the rise of Communism in war-torn Western Europe, the United States inaugurated the European Recovery Program, known as the Marshall Plan, instituted at the Paris Economic Conference (July, 1947) to foster economic recovery in certain European countries after World War II 4.)Berlin airlift, 1948–49, supply of vital necessities to West Berlin by air transport primarily under U.S. auspices. It was initiated in response to a land and water blockade of the city that had been instituted by the Soviet Union in the hope that the Allies would be forced to abandon West Berlin. The massive effort to supply the 2 million West Berliners with food and fuel for heating began in June, 1948, and lasted until Sept., 1949, 5.)The North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) *Established in Washington on 4 April 1949
*Members made up nations from North American, and Europe, 12 countries total.
*Purpose: to commit each signatory country to the peace and security of the other members.
*Ensures any threats made on Europe is a threat made on the United States
* Currently today there are 28 nations
6.)The domino theory was a foreign policy theory during the 1950s to 1980s, promoted at times by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. During the cold war the general policy of the West toward the Communist states was to contain them with the hope that internal division, failure, or evolution might end their threat 7.)The Warsaw Pact *made in response to the formation of the NATO
*Established on 17 May 1955, in Poland
*Members: People republic of Albania, Peoples republic of Bulgaria, Czechoslovak republic, German democratic republic, People’s Republic of Hungry, People’s Republic of Poland, Peoples republic of Romania, union of soviet socialist republic.
*Main duties and main branches
1. The Political consultative committee-responsible for non-military activities between the various nations of the pact
2.The unified command of pact armed forces-responsible for carious troops under its auspices from the carious nations
* Main idea: various nations who were signatories would come to aid of anther in case of aggression
10.) the offical dismantel of the wall( 9, November 1989) Ended in 1991 with the downfall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Cold War. The concept of the Iron Curtain did symbolize the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of Worl War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991 9.) On 27 June 1989, the foreign ministers of Austria and Hungary, Alois Mock and Gyula Horn, ceremonially cut through the border defenses separating their countries 8.) Thousands of East Germans began to emigrate to West Germany via Hungary on September 11, forshadowing the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 The concept of the Iron Curtain did symbolize the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1995 until the end of the Cold War in 1991 Background Information Imporant Names and Dates Winston Churchill 5, March 1946
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