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Influential Scientists of Atomic Chemistry

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on 20 September 2013

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Transcript of Influential Scientists of Atomic Chemistry

Influential Scientists of Atomic Chemistry
Throughout history, there have been a number of influential scientists who each had significant impacts on the way we've come to understand atoms and the interactions between them.
Atomic Theory
Matter is composed of discrete units called atoms. These atoms can combine in fixed proportions to form substances. Atoms are the fundemental building blocks of matter.
John Dalton
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Born: 14 March 1879
1. Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany

2. Played violin and piano

3. Worked as a patent clerk in Switzerland

4. Died April 18, 1955 (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.
General Relativity
Chemistry Contibutions
1. Light consists of localized particles called quanta. Originally rejected by many other scientists
2. An atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. It is a system independent of all others
3. Postulated wave-particle duality. Particles traveled through a wave-like motion.

Sir JJ Thompson
Robert Millikan
Schrodinger & Heisenberg
Schrodinger & Heisenberg
Erwin Schrodinger Born: 12 August 1887
Werner Heisenberg Born: 5 December 1901

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger
1. Austrian Physicist
2. His mother was half Austrian and half English; his father was Catholic and his mother was Lutheran. Despite being raised in a religious household, he called himself an atheist
3. On January 4, 1961, Schrödinger died in Vienna at the age of 73 of tuberculosis
Werner Karl Heisenberg
1. German Theoretical Physicist
2. Heisenberg was born in Würzburg, to Kaspar Heisenberg, a secondary school teacher of languages
3. Interested in Bohr's work at a young age
They are best known for the uncertainty principle, which was derived through matrix formulation. The uncertainty principle is technically a series of mathematical inequalities that describes a limit to which certain properties can be known simultaneously. The best known of the inequalities is it is impossible to simultaneously know the position and velocity of a particle. The pair also made some contributions to wave theory.
Friedrich Hund
Friedrich Hund
4 February 1896 – 31 March 1997
Friedrich Hermann Hund
1. Worked with Heisenberg and Schrodinger for part of his career.
2. German physicist from Karlsruhe. He was Caucasian.
Electrons fill orbitals according to :
1. One electron is added to each of the degenerate orbitals in a subshell before two electrons are added to any orbital in the subshell.

2. Electrons are added to a subshell with the same value of the spin quantum number until each orbital in the subshell has at least one electron.

***Can be understood by assuming that electrons try to stay as far apart as possible
Images (Cont'd)
Image (Cont'd)
Wolfgang Pauli- A Life
1. Born: 25 April 1900
2. Died: 15 December 1958
3. Pauli was born in Vienna to a chemist. (His dad had the same name as him!!!!!)
4. Originally Catholic, but soon left the church

Theory (with image)
Pauli Exclusion Principle-- An atom's electrons have their own unique quantum state.

Also, Pauli effect, things would mysteriously break down around him.
Wolfgang Pauli
Hann, Otto, Meitner, Lise & Strassmann, Fritz
Hann, Otto, Meitner, Lise & Strassmann, Fritz
First to discover that when bombarded with neutrons, the Uranium atom actually split!!!
Antoine Henri Becquerel
Antoine Henri Becquerel
1. Lived from 15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908
2. Part of four generations of scientists in Paris.
3. He was a Roman Catholic

Discovered evidence of solar radiation, when he did an experiment with bromide emulsion and photographic paper.
Born: Ca. 495 BCE
Died: Ca. 435 BCE
Contributions to Chemistry
Empedocles was the originator of the cosmogenic theory of the four Classical elements, which are fire, air, earth, and water. He also proposed two forces, Love and Strife, that would control the mixture and separation of the four elements.
Empedocles was born in Acragas in Sicily
to an important family. He believed in the Greecian religion that was prevalent during his life and subscribed to several different philosophies.
The exact dates of his birth and death are not known, but it is known that he was born some time in the beginning of the 5th century BCE and died in the same century.
Contributions to Chemistry
Leucippus is widely attributed, most notably by Aristotle, to have been the founder of atomist theory. He was the first to propose the "atom" which he said constituted everything and was indivisible. He also thought that the world was composed of both the empty "void" and the full "solid" which was composed of atoms.
Not much is known of Leucippus, and some even doubt he existed, but it is thought that he lived in Miletus, Abdera, or Elea. From what is left of his writings, it is believed that he subscribed to Western philosophical thought. He was a follower of Zeno (creator of the famous "Zeno's Paradox"), and it was thought that this is the reason he proposed the atom.
Born: Ca. 460 BCE
Died: Ca. 370 BCE
Contributions to Chemistry
Democritus is often mentioned closely with his mentor, Leucippus, so it is difficult to distinguish his individual contributions. Despite this, it is believed that Democritus was the first to formulate a specific atomic theory. His theory stated that 1) atoms are indivisible, 2) there is empty space between atoms, 3) atoms are indestructible, 4) atoms are in perpetual motion, 5) and that there are an infinite number of atoms which all differ in their characteristics.
Democritus was born in the city of Abdera in Thrace, and his beliefs seem to be those characteristic of the time, namely, anthropomorphic and omnipotent gods. He was a student of Leucippus, and they are believed to have formulated their atomic theories together. Democritus was often called the "laughing philosopher" because of his emphasis on cheerfulness.
Born: 429 BCE
Died: 347 BCE
Contributions to Chemistry
Plato's main contribution to the field of chemistry was the dialogue "Timaeus" which discusses the composition of matter. Plato proposes here that the minute particles of each of the four elements are a different geometric shape: tetrahedron fire is a tetrahedron, air is an octahedron, water is an icosahedron, and and earth is a cube.
Plato was born to an aristocratic family in either Athens or Aegina. Contrary to most popular beliefs at the time, Plato believed in one god, similar to Christianity or Judaism. As a result, his philosophies and discoveries were very influential upon the development of Western thought.
Born: 384 BCE
Died: 322 BCE
Aristotle was born in Stagira, Chalcidice and over the course of his life was a very important figure. At one point, he tutored Alexander the Great, Ptolemy, and Cassander. Aristotle tended toward the typical Greecian beliefs of the time.
Contributions to Chemistry
Aristotle, in addition to his significant work in the field of philosophy, made immense scientific contributions. Aristotle posited a theory for a fifth element in addition to those proposed by Empedocles, which he called Aether. It governed the aspects of the heavenly objects and bodies. He also made strides in the physics of motion.
Albert Einstein formulated a geometric theory about gravity, which unified the separate dimensions of space and time, into one fabric of space-time. This theory has been very important in the development of physics, and still has applications in string theory and quantum mechanics.
Lise Meitner--- Born 7 November 1878 – Died 27 October 1968, was an Austrian, later Swedish

Otto Hahn--- Born 8 March 1879 – Died 28 July 1968 , was a German chemist--Opponent of Jewish persecution

Fritz Strassmann-- Born February 22, 1902 - Died April 22, 1980) was a German chemist.

Hantaro Nagaoka
Japanese Physicist
Culturally, shared Japanese traditional beliefs
Proposed a Saturnian model of the atom. Electrons bound by electrostatic force revolve around a massive positively charged nucleus.
Niels Bohr
-Danish physicist
-Jewish by Heritage
- 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962
Picture (Only One)
-Bohr model of the atom with the atomic nucleus in the middle and electrons in orbit around it, which he compared to the solar system
-Helped develop quantum mechanics, in which electrons move from one energy level to another in distinct steps, instead of continuously, all the time.
August 15, 1865 – December 11, 1950
Carl D. Anderson
September 3, 1905 – January 11, 1991

Anderson was born in New York City, the son of Swedish immigrants
-Discovered Positron

-Positron is by definition--a antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. It has an electric charge of +1e, a spin of ½, and has the same mass as an electron. When a low-energy positron collides with a low-energy electron, annihilation occurs, resulting in radiation.
CHADWICK (Our Scientist)
-English Physicist who along with discovering the neutron, was on the Manhattan project.

-He was an atheist

-Child of John Joseph and Anne Mary Knowles Chadwick. He was named after his paternal grandfather.
-Discovered the Neutron in '32
-Deduced it by studying the charges and masses of an atom
The theoretical physicists became convinced that the neutron must be a nuclear particle, and not a proton-electron pair. Chadwick determined the mass of the neutron experimentally, and found that it was greater than that of the proton, thereby confirming this theory. For his discovery of the neutron, he was awarded the Hughes Medal by the Royal Society in 1932, the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1935, the Copley Medal in 1950, and the Franklin Medal in 1951.
-Chadwick’s discovery of the neutron also made it possible to produce elements heavier than uranium in the laboratory, by the slow capture of neutrons

James Chadwick
20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974
Born: 1766
Died: 1844
Dalton was born into a Quaker family in Cockermouth, Cumberland, England.
Contributions to Chemistry
In 1803, Dalton proposed the Atomic Theory which stated 1) all matter is composed of small indivisible particles called atoms 2) atoms of individual elements possess unique characteristics and weight 3) three types of atoms exist: simple, compound, and complex. He formulated the solid sphere model of the atom.
Born: 1856
Died: 1940
Thomson was born in Cheetham Hill, Manchester, England to a relatively low class family. He showed great promise in the sciences from a very young age, and eventually went to Oxford university.
Contributions to Chemistry
Thomson is credited with discovering the electron, which he identified using his cathode ray experiment. He also was the first person to identify the stable isotopes in 1913. His other main contribution to the field of chemistry was the formulation of the plum pudding atomic model, which basically said that atoms were mainly positively charged "pudding" with some negatively charged "plums" in it.
Born: 1743
Died: 1794
Works Cited --Info (Wouldn't Hanging Indent!)

"Albert Einstein - Facts." Albert Einstein - Facts. Nobel Prize Committee, n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-facts.html>.

"Albert Einstein." Albert Einstein. Greenlight LLC, n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://einstein.biz/biography.php>.

Berryman, Sylvia, "Democritus", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/democritus/>.

Berryman, Sylvia, "Leucippus", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/leucippus/>.

"Biography of Friedrich Hund." Biography of Friedrich Hund. Evi, n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www.evi.com/q/biography_of_friedrich_hund>.

"Chadwick Discovers the Neutron." PBS. PBS, 1998. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dp32ne.html>.

"Dalton, John (1766-1844) -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography." ScienceWorld. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Dalton.html>.

"Ernest Rutherford - Biographical."Nobelprize.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1908/rutherford-bio.html>.

"Erwin Schrödinger - Biographical." Erwin Schrödinger - Biographical. Nobel Prize Committee, n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1933/schrodinger-bio.html>.

"Erwin Schrödinger." Erwin Schrödinger, Theoretical Physicist. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://bdaugherty.tripod.com/berlin/schrodinger.html>.

"Friedrich Hund." Friedrich Hund. Purdue, n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/history/hund.html>.

"Friedrich Hund." Friedrich Hund. Soylent Communications, n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nndb.com/people/155/000099855/>.

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"Heisenberg - Quantum Mechanics, 1925-1927: The Uncertainty Principle." Heisenberg - Quantum Mechanics, 1925-1927: The Uncertainty Principle. American Institute of Physics, 2013. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www.aip.org/history/heisenberg/p08.htm>.

"Henri Becquerel - Biographical." Henri Becquerel - Biographical. Nobel Prize Committee, n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1903/becquerel-bio.html>.

"James Chadwick - Biographical." James Chadwick - Biographical. Nobel Prize Committee, n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1935/chadwick-bio.html>.

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Lavoisier was born into a wealthy family in Paris in 1743. At the age of five, he inherited a large fortune, which he used to fund his education as a lawyer. Although he received a law degree, he practiced science in his free time.
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Contributions to Chemistry
Among the many contributions Lavoisier made, one of the biggest was the Law of Conservation of Mass, which he discovered when he burnt phosphorous and sulfur and the products ended up being the same weight. Perhaps the most far reaching of his contributions was that he changed cnemistry into more of a quantitative science than a qualitative one.
Born: 1871
Died: 1937
Rutherford was born in Brightwater, New Zealand, but moved to England shortly after and was a firm believer in Christianity.
Contributions to Chemistry
Rutherford is among one of the most influential scientists of all time, contributing not only scientific discoveries, but also a model of the atom. Among other things, Rutherford discovered the concept of radioactive half-life and made the distinction between alpha and beta waves. He also performed his famous Gold Foil experiment, which led him to the formulation of the Rutherford model of the atom in 1911. This model conceptualized the atom as having a dense central area, which would later be termed the nucleus.
Born: 1868
Died: 1953
Millikan was born into the family of a preacher in the town of Morrison, Illinois. He followed a traditional version of Christianity.
Contributions to Chemistry
Millikan's most important, if not his most recognized, contribution to the field of chemistry was the result of his oil drop experiment, where he balanced the gravitational force on the droplets with the upward drag and electric force, allowing him him to observe their masses. Using the results of this experiment, he was able to determine the elementary electric charge of the electron.
Born: 1867
Died: 1934
Marie Curie was born in Warsaw, Poland and was the daughter of two revolutionaries who had lost their fortunes, making her life inherently difficult. Despite this troubled background, she became the first woman to ear a Nobel prize.
Contributions to Chemistry
Curie was the scientist who coined the term "radioactivity", as well as formulating the central theory of it. She also developed techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, a discovery that would prove invaluable to future scientists. She received the 1911 Nobel Prize for her discovery of the elements of radium and polonium.
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