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Conceptions of Curriculum and Curriculum Specialists: Philip
Transcript of Conceptions of Curriculum and Curriculum Specialists: Philip
From Understanding Curriculum by Pinar, Reynolds, Slattery, and Taubman
copy and paste as needed and take advantage of an infinite canvas!
"Who calls oneself a new humanist or a self-actualizer, or a social reconstrucitonist, or an academic rationalist? The answer is, no one does." (Jackson, 1992a, P. 17).
Bobbitt, Tyler, Schwab
Mappings of the Field
EDUC 6120, Fall 2013
race-course or career in Latin
Cicero- "the course my mind runs on"
Etymology of the word curriculum
What is your definition of curriculum?
Jackson (1992a) lists characteristic definitions
1. A course, a regular course of study or training, as at a school or university.
2. A course, especially, a specified fixed couse of study, as in a school or college, as one leading to a degree. The whole body of courses offered in an educational institution, or by a department thereof.
3. Curriculum is all of the experiences children have under the guidance of teachers.
4. Curriculum encompasses all learning opportunities provided by the school.
5. Curriculum is a plan or program for all experiences which the learner encounters under the direction of the school.
Would you like to add or revise to your definition of curriculum based on any of these 5?
What our text says:
"A complex field will use central terms in complex, sometimes even contradictory ways. The multiplication of definitions is not an urgent problem to be solved. It is, rather, a state of affairs to be acknowledged." (Pinar, et al., 2008. P. 26)
What does Dewey says about it?
"the [problem is] just to get rid of the prejudicial notion that there is some gap in kind (as distinct from degree) between the child's experience and the various forms of subjet-matter that make up the course of study" (Dewey, 1902, 11).
One of his contributions to the definition is that the child's experience plays into curriculum.
Does experience belong in the definition? Why or why not?
What does Bobbitt say about it?
1. It is the entire range of experience, both undirected and directed, concerned in unfolding the abilities of the individual
2. It is the series of consciously directed training experiences that the schools use for completing and perfecting the unfoldment. Our profession uses the term usually in the latter sense." (Bobbitt, 1918, p. 43).
Bobbitt's definition then includes "out of school" experiences. Does this belong in our definition of curriculum?
Hidden, studied, null curriculum
Unwanted outcomes of schooling:
hidden curriculum (Jackson, 1968; Apple 1975a; McLaren, 1994)
unstudied curriculum (Overly, 1970).
unwritten curriculum (Dreeben, 1976).
What is NOT offered:
null curriculum (Eisner, 1979; Flinders, Noddings, & Thornston, 1986).
Out of school curriculum (Schubert, 1981c).
Something to ponder...
"We may disagree with that way of looking, but we nonetheless cannot avoid making use of the definition even while expressing our disagreement. Is it valuable, for instance, to think of there being something called a hidden curriculum? It may or may not turn out to be so, but even those who oppose the use of the term and who argue against it are momentarily caught in its ideational gap. And so it is with all the other ways of definiting the word 'curriculum' (Jackson, 1992a, p. 12).
Do we need a central definition of curriculum?
Is it acceptable for our field to be inconclusive about what it actually is? Does this create confusion? Does the definition actually matter?
Does it help us create our own identity in the field to determine which definition we ascribe to?
McNeil's (1975) Four Conceptions of Curriculum
2. Social Reconstructionist
Eisner and Vallance (1975)
1. The cognitive process orientation
2. the technological orientation
3. the self actualization orientation
4. social reconstructionists
5. academic rationalists.
In 1986, Vallance revises this list, dropping self actualization and adding:
Kleibard's (1986) Interest Groups
3. social efficiency educator
4. social meliorists
So does it even matter what we consider ourselves to be? Should we try to fit ourselves into one of these categories? Is it possible to be more than one?
wanted curriculum development to be led by educators, but including other groups in the community. NATIONAL SCALE. "Curriculum standardization and centralization were, at this time, goals, not oppressive realities." (Pinar, et al., 2008, p. 33).
The Tyler Rationale
1. what educational purposes should the school seek to attain? [objectives]
2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? [design]
3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? [scope and sequence]
4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained [evaluation]
1. defining educational objectives
2. devising learning experiences
Give advice to practitioners
Conduct studies to determine what should be taught and how it should be taught
Chair the curriculum team, monitoring activities, supervising them, and assisting in the formation of values.
Conduct staff development on curriculum
Be familiar with current theories and develop new ones.
Study theories and test them.
1. What is the "art of the practical"?
2. What is the role of the school-based curriculum specialist who seeks to practice the art?
3. What is the role of the university-based specialist?
Curriculum should be done at the local level by a team. External consultants should be employed periodically: professional academics and social scientists
Curriculum Specialist as Consultant
Move closer to the practitioner
Blurs the distinction between curriculum development and in-service training and staff development
Curriculum Specialist as Generalist
Move toward the academy
Study American government and society (culture)
Develop and study theories
Reconceptualists: Dissatified with Tyler Rationale, applied eclectic traditions to curriculum, left-wing political bias
What is the role of a curriculum specialist, in your mind?
Apple, M. (1975). The hidden curriculum and the nature of conflict. In W. Pinar (Ed.), Curriculum theorizing: The reconceptualists (96-119). Berkley, CA: McCutchan.
Bobbitt, F. (1924). How to make a curriculum. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Dewey, J. (1902). The child and the curriculum. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Dreeben, R. (1976). The unwritten curriculum and its relation to values. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 8(2), 111-124.
Eisner, E. & Vallance, E. (Eds) (1974). Conflicting conceptions of curriculum. Berkley, CA: McCutchan.
Eisner, E. (1979). The educational imagination: On the design and evaluation of school programs. New York: Macmillan.
Flinders, D., Noddings, N., & Thornton, S. (1986). The null curriculum: Its theoretical basis and practical implications. Curriculum Inquiry, 16(1), 33-42.
Jackson, P. (1968). Life in classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc.
Kleibard, H. (1986). The struggle for the American curriculum 1893-1958. Boston, MA: Routledge & Kegan Pau.
McLaren, P. (1994). Life in schools: An introduction to critical pedagogy in the foundations of education. [2nd edition] . New York: Longman.
Overly, N. (1970). The unstudied curriculum: Its impact on children. Washington, DC: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development [ASCD], Elementary Education Council.
Pinar, W. (2008). Understanding curriculum: An introduction to the study of historical and contemporary curriculum discourses (Vol. 17). Peter Lang Pub Incorporated.
Schubert, W. (1981, January). Knowledge about out-of-school curriculum. Educational Forum, 185-198.
Schwab, J. (1978). Science, curriculum, and liberal education: Selected essays, Joseph J. Schwab. [Edited I. Westbury & N. Wilkof] Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Tyler, R. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Vallance, E (1986). A second look at Conflicting conceptions of curriculum. Theory Into Practice, Vol XXV(1), 24-30.