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Inorganic Chemistry

Explanation of the Reasearch Basics final work.

alberto borrego flores

on 27 November 2012

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Transcript of Inorganic Chemistry

MATTER AND ITS STATES It is the study of the elements and its compounds, the theoric
interpretation of their properties and reactions, without counting the
ones of hydrocarbons that are the object of study of the
Organic Chemistry. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Is the uncharged of the study of
the Carbon and its compounds. BIOLOGY PHYSICS NATURAL SCIENCES PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY It is the study of the Chemistry principals. The Chemistry implies the study of the properties and behavior of the matter. The matter is the physical material of the Universe is everything around us.
Matter can exist in three different physical states, those states differ in properties easily observables. The particles are free to move and the substance adopt the form of its container, the liquids are hard to compress, but they are easy to deform. LIQUID SOLID In the solid state, the substances are rigid and difficult
to deform, hard and a little compressible. GAS The substances are very dense and occupy all their container. The molecules are far apart and interactions are smaller than in liquid or solid phase. The gases are very compressible and its volume depends of the temperature and pressure. Recently, some Scientifics began considering a fourth matter state, that new state is called the plasma, that is very similar to gas, but their particles are ionized in a higher percentage, this gives the matter some characteristics that make some people consider it as a new matter state All the matter state changes has a fixed name, and every state can be converted into any other, the following figure show us the different changes and their names. MATTER PROPERTIES All the characteristics that allow a person distinguish a property of a
thing from another are called matter properties. There are two different kinds of matter properties: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES A physical property is a characteristic able to see in an object without making a change, for example, the color, the density, or the boiling point.

A chemical property is the one that only can be observed making an alteration in the original composition of the substance INTENSIVE AND EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES In this case the classification uses the dependence of the quantity of matter presented. The properties that depend of the quantity of matter are called extensive; they could be the mass or the volume. The ones that depend of the quantity of mass are known as intensives. All the chemical properties are intensives too. CHEMISTRY ALBERTO BORREGO, ARTURO MORA, CHRISTOPHER PARGA, MARIO HERNÁNDEZ ATOMS Atoms are the fundamental building blocks that make up all matter.
Particles that make up atoms are: protons, neutron and electrons.Protons and neutrons are located at the center of an atom, the part of the atom called the nucleus. The electrons are in motion at some distance from nucleus. QUANTUM NUMBERS Each electron in an atom is characterized by four different quantum numbers. The distribution of an electron in space,is characterized by three of these quantum numbers: the principal quantum number, the angular momentum quantum number and the magnetic quantum number. The fourth quantum number (spin quantum number) describes the magnetism of the electron. According to the Pauli Exclusion Principle, no two electrons may have the same four quantum numbers. There are four different quantum numbers: n,m,l and s First quantum number, n; Principal energy levels The first quantum number, given the symbol n, is of primary importance in determining the energy of an electron.
As n increases, the energy of the electron increases and, on the average it is found farther out from the nucleus. Second quantum number l sublevels (s,p,d,f) Each principal energy level includes one or more sublevels. The sublevels are denoted by the second quantum number. Third quantum number m; orbitals Each sublevel contains one or more orbitals, which differ from one another in the value assigned to the third quantum number , m. This quantum number determines the direction in space of the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. Fourth quantum number S; Electron Spin The fourth quantum number s is associated with electron spin. CHEMICAL BOND A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bonding occur when the valence electrons are shared with other element in order to complete the octet rule that says that a compound to be stable needs to have 8 electrons.
The most common figure to express the structure is the Lewis structure. Lewis structure uses dots to represent electrons, the electron dot notation shows only the chemical symbol surrounded by dots to represent the electrons in the incomplete outer level. There are two forms of bonding between the atoms: ionic and covalent. The Polar Covalent Bond is the one that is between two non-metallic elements, the non-Polar happens when two equal molecules are combined. Coordinated one is the bonding in which one element gives all their electrons to another in order to get the octet rule. The ionic bond is formed of a a metal and a non-metal, this is called polarity because the metal is positive (+) and the non-metal is negative (-) For more complementary information you can consult the complete work The Chemistry is one of the three natural sciences, with the Biology and the Physics. The Chemistry is the science that studies the matter, its composition, structure and properties, their changes and the laws that regulates that changes. Chemistry allows us to obtain a comprehension of our world and how does it work, because it’s in the middle of all we do . THANK YOU!
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