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Fundamentals of Mentoring
Transcript of Fundamentals of Mentoring
New Faculty Orientation
9 August 2016
Presented by Ernest L. Brothers, PhD
Associate Dean of the Graduate School
Associate Director for Diversity Enhancement,
National Institute for Mathematical & Biological Synthesis, NIMBioS
“The cultivation of developmental or mentoring relationships between graduate students and their professors is a critical factor in determining the successful completion of graduate programs" (Davidson & Foster-Johnson, 2001, p. 549).
“The extent and nature of graduate students’ interactions with faculty members are critical means by which they become integrated into departmental communities” (Herzig, 2004, p. 178).
Mentoring vs Advising
"It is expected at the graduate level, especially for doctoral students, that effective mentoring relationships flourish between graduate students and their major professors/advisors" (Thomas, Willis, & Davis, 2007, p. 178).
“Genuine mentoring involves a far deeper relationship with a student than is the role of advising the student” (Schnaiberg, 2005, p. 30).
"While doctoral students typically work with an advisor during the dissertation process, a mentoring relationship provides personal and professional support that extends beyond the traditional advising affiliation" (Holley & Caldwell, 2011, p. 244).
Mentoring Relationship Phases
- The relationship is first started
- "The positive expectations that emerge during the initiation phase are continuously tested against reality."
- The relationship is substantially altered either emotionally or structurally.
- "Both individuals continue to have some contact on an informal basis in order to continue the mutual support created in earlier years."
Source: Kram, 1983, pp. 614-620
"Mentoring often involves career socialization, inspiration and belief in each other, and promoting excellence and passion for work through guidance, protection, support, and networking" (Thomas et. al, 2007, p. 179)
“Mentoring is a dynamic reciprocal relationship in a work environment between an advanced career incumbent (mentor) and a beginner (protégé) aimed at promoting the career development of both” (Healy, 1997, p. 10).
The basis and purpose of the relationship is the guiding, advising, and supporting of the protege's growth.
There is caring, mutual respect, trust, and regard in both parties.
There is a transfer and sharing of information, tips, and expertise in the process of mentoring.
The mentor helps the protege learn and integrate into a new role or stage of personal, academic, or professional development. (Chan, 2010, p. 1)
The Mentorship Relationship
New Paradigms: Cross Cultural Mentoring and Network Mentoring
“Perhaps the best way to deal with differences in our increasingly diverse world, and the world of mentoring female, minority, and international students, is to change the present structure” (Dedrick & Watson, 2002, p. 287).
"There is increasing diversity within the student population, therefore the ability to establish effective relationships across race and other differences such as culture, religion, and socio-economic status make the development of multicultural competence critical for any professional's own perfomance and effectiveness" (Thomas, et. al, 2007, p. 184).
Cross Cultural Mentoring and Network Mentoring
Cross cultural mentoring may be defined as a mentoring process whereby the mentor establishes a relationship with the protégé from a personal, cultural, sociopolitical, and historical context (Alvarez, Blume, Cervantes, & Thomas, 2009).
Network mentoring "encourages individuals to draw support from a diverse set or team of mentors. In essence, a network rather than an individual provides the functions associated with mentoring" (Zellers, Howard, Barci, 2008, p. 563).
The basis and purpose of the mentoring relationship is guiding, advising, and supporting the protege's growth.
There is caring, mutual respect, trust, and regard in both parties.
There is transfer and sharing of information, tips, and expertise in the process of mentoring.
The mentor helps the protege learn and integrate into a new role or stage of personal, academic, or professional development.
Source: Chan, 2010, p. 1)
Alvarez, A. N., Blume, A. W., Cervantes, J. M., Thomas, L. R. (2009). Tapping the wisdom tradition: essential elements to mentoring students of color. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 40(2), 181-188.
Chan, A. (2010). Inspire, empower, connect: reaching across cultural differences to make a real difference. Lanham, MA, Rowan & Littlefield Education.
Davidson, M. N. & Foster-Johnson, L. (2001). Mentoring in the preparation of graduate researchers of color. Review of Educational Research. 71(4), 549-574.
Dedrick, R. F. & Watson, F. (2002). Mentoring needs of female, minority, and international graduate students: a content analysis of academic research guides and related printed material. Mentoring & Tutoring. 10(3), 275-289.
Healy, C. C. (1997). An operational definition of mentoring. In H. T. Frierson, Jr. (Ed.), Diversity in higher education (pp. 9-22). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc.
Herzig, A. H. (2004). Becoming mathematicians: women and students of color choosing and leaving doctoral mathematics. Review of Educational Research. 74(2), 171-214.
Higgins, M. C. & Kram, K. E. (2001). Reconceptualizing mentoring at work: a developmental network perspective. The Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 264-288.
Holley, K. A. & Caldwell, M. L. (2011). The challenges of designing and implementing a doctoral student mentoring program. Innov High Educ. 37, 243-253.
Kram, K. E. (1983). Phases of the mentor relationship. The Academy of Management Journal. 26(4), 608-625.
Mullen, C.A. 2006. A graduate student guide: making the most of mentoring. Lanham, MA, Rowan & Littlefield Education.
Schnaiberg, A. (2005). Mentoring graduate students: going beyond the formal role structure. The American Sociologist. 36(2), 28-42.
Thomas, K. M., Willis, L. A., & Davis, J. (2007). Mentoring minority graduate students: issues and strategies for institutions, faculty, and students. Equal Opportunities International. 26(3), 178-192.
Zellers, D. F., Howard, V. M., and Barcic, M. A. (2008). Faculty mentoring programs: reenvisioning rather than reinventing the wheel. Review of Educational Research. 78(3), 522-588.