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Transcript of Differentiated learning
DI is based on Cognitive Theory
One size doesn't fit all.
What we share in common makes us human. How we differ makes us individuals.
Differentiation means tailoring instruction to
meet individual needs.
Differentiated Instruction is an instructional theory that allows teachers to face this challenge by taking diverse student factors into account when planning and delivering and delivering instruction.
Based on this theory teachers can structure learning environments that address that variety of learning styles,
interests and abilities found within a classroom.
Differentiation consists of the efforts of teachers to respond to variance among learners in the classroom. Whenever a teacher reaches out to an individual or small group to vary his or her teaching in order to create the best learning experience possible, that teacher is differentiating instruction.
•The goal of a differentiated classroom is "to maximize student growth and individual success" (Tomlinson & Allan, 2000 p. 4) by providing many avenues for students to acquire content, to process information and ideas, and to develop products
What it is…
Providing multiple assignments
Allowing students to choose,
Permitting students to opt out of material
Structuring class assignments
Having high expectations for all students.
Creating learning centers
Providing students with opportunities to
what it isn´t …
Assigning more work
Requiring students to teach material
Giving all students the same work most of the time.
Focusing on student weaknesses
Using only the differences in student responses
Be clear on the key concepts and generalizations or principles
that give meaning and structure to the topic, chapter, unit, or lesson you are planning,
Think of assessment as a road map for your thinking and planning.
Lessons for all students should emphasize critical and creative thinking
Lessons for all students should be engaging.
In a differentiated classroom, there should be a balance between student selected and teacher-assigned tasks and working arrangements.
Rules of Thumb
The Oxford English Dictionary defines “project” as “An individual or collaborative enterprise that is carefully planned and designed to achieve a particular aim: [e.g.] a research project /a nationwide project to encourage business development”.
Ana María Martínez
It was the American thinker, John Dewey (1859-1952), author of the famous “learning by doing” theory, who did most to develop the concept of projects in education.
For him, a project has four prerequisites:
• a communal reflection process, which
• shapes its growth and development;
• observation of the conditions in the environment where it is devised;
• knowledge of what has happened in similar situations in the past;
• an approach which synthesizes observation of the present and knowledge of the past and so identiﬁes their meaning.
Projects in Education.
Is a method which enables us to move from idea to action, structuring the various stages in that process;
sets out to alter the (social) environment in which it is to take place;
takes shape in a certain social, spatial and temporal context;
has an educational dimension and enables people to learn by experiment;
is the product of collective activity;
necessarily involves evaluation, which establishes a link between idea and action.
A Project is...
Features of projects.
Projects are collective: projects are the product of collective endeavour. They are run by teams, involve various partners and cater for the needs of others.
Projects are unique: all projects stem from new ideas. They provide a speciﬁc response to a need (problem) in a speciﬁc context. They are innovative. Projects are an adventure: every project is different and ground-breaking; they always involve some uncertainty and risk.
Projects can be assessed: projects are planned and broken down into measurable aims, which must be open to evaluation.
Projects are made up of stages: projects have distinct stages.
Features of Projects...
The fact that students differ may be inconvenient, but it is inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to kids.
Projects have a purpose: projects have clearly-deﬁned aims and set out to produce clearly-deﬁned results.
Their purpose is to solve a “problem”, and this involves analyzing needs beforehand. Suggesting one or more solutions, it aims at lasting social change. Projects are realistic: their aims must be achievable, and this means taking into account both of requirements and of the ﬁnancial and human resources available.
Projects are limited in time and space: they have a beginning and an end, and are implemented in a speciﬁc place and context.
Projects are complex: projects call on various planning and implementation skills, and involve various partners and players.
Tomilson, C., A. (2001). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. Virginia U.S.A.:ASCD.
Allan, S. (n.d). Differentiated Instruction, Curriculum and Assessment. Revised in August, 2012 and retrieved from http://www.differentiatedinstruction.net/.
Tomilson, C., A. (2012). What is Differentiated Instruction? . Whashington, D.C.: Reading Rockets.Revised in August, 2012 and retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/263/
Willoughby, J. Differentiating Instruction: Meeting Students Where They Are Lynchburg City Schools in Lynchburg, Virginia. In Teaching Today. (2005). New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Revised in August 2012 and retrieved from http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/di_meeting.phtml
Hallmarks of Differentiated Instruction
In differentiated classes:
there are content requirements and often in the form of “standards
and there are students who will inevitably vary as learners.
Thus, teachers in differentiated classrooms accept and act on the premise that they must be ready to engage students in instruction through different approaches to learning, by appealing to a range of interests, and by using varied rates of instruction along with varied degrees of complexity and differing support systems.
Tomilson, C., A. (2000). The Differentiated Classroom. U.S.A: ASCD. http://www.mccracken.kyschools.us/Downloads/CarolAnnTomlinson%20Differentiated_Classroom.pdf