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Transcript of TIMELINE
Without them we
couldn't have life.
They form it!
By: Cata Miralles.
The life appears:the
It was a very big
explosion. It created
4'6 billions years ago.
The evolve of the species.
THE EVOLVE OF THE SPECIES
One of them evolve until became
All of the animals
in the animals who are living
in the Earth today, like: the bird
the monkey, the snake...
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
120.000 years (40.000 years in Europe)
Age of Metals
The people started to use the metal; first the bronze.
The people started to
the metals;the first was the
They built a lot of constructions.
For example; the
was a very big rock nailed on the ground vertically.The people used it for mark the limit of a place or property.
And finally, the
People said that it was a place where
the druids did
It was formed by
The most important cromlech is the
This is the estructure of the
(weapons with stone)
(weapons more advanced)
The first civilizations:
The people of
had and have very good
buildings like this
The ''socially'' in Egypt was very strict.
, was the king of all and considered a god.
His servants were always at your disposition.
There was a
. He wrote all of the pharaoh.
Egypt: the socially.
THe egyptian religion:
The pharaon was buried in a pyramid with her possesions: her servants, objects...
For it, the slaves had to build very big consructions
The egyptian religion said that after the die you go to a judice, diriged to the gods. they put your hearth in a balance and a plome, if the plome was heavy you were eaten by a
.If it was the contrary you have the etern life.
The trial of Osiris:
The trial of Osiris.
The Egyptian gods.
They started to build weapons (with stone)
They began to live always in the same place;they became
; because they moved from a place to another.
Greece was organized in small towns
The greeks created the
He conquered a lot of lands.
From Greece to Asia.
These are the lands that Alejandro Magno conquered.
This is a
They used it
The Roman Empire.
The decline of the Roman Empire:
Germanic tribes lived to the north
of the Romans called the
In 395, Emperor Theodosius divided the
Western Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire.
This, marks the
beggining of the
The Germanic Kingdoms:
, in France.
, in Spain.
, and later the
, in Britain.
declined and people moved to the countryside.
The Romans and the Germanic tribes had different laws customs and religions.But in some places the Germanic peoples spoke
In 410, the Visigoths attacked Rome.
six years later,
, asked the Visigoths for help to
expel other germanic peoples.In exchange, they received lands in south-est
At the beginning of the 6 century, the Franks
expelled the Visigoths from Gaul.Then, they went to the Iberian Peninsula and made
During the second half of the
there was a constant fighting between the kings
kingdom disappeared after the
The Eastern Roman Empire
was richer than The Western
Roman Empire, and it resisted the Germanic
invasions.Its capital city was
He was the most important Byzantine
Emperor.He ruled with his wife
between 527 and 565.
His armies conquered many territories in
North Africa,the Iberian Peninsula and Italy.
, had great power.
A slow decline:
After Justinian's death, The
Byzantine Empire began to lose
By the 15 century,only
remained. in 1453,the city was conquered by the
This, marked the end of the
Tradition and religion:
At first, the Byzantine Empire
followed the traditions of the Roman
Empire.It adopted an increasing number of
as the official language.
-In 1054, there was a separation between the
Roman Catholic Church
Byzantine Orthodox Church
,the emperors tried
to prohibit the worship of holy images
evangelized the peoples
of Eastern Europe.Today,
main form of Christianity in Russia,Lithuania,
Belarus,Bulgaria,Romania and Greece.
Muhammad,the founder of Islam:
Arabia is a large peninsula between the Red
Sea and the Persian Gulf.The Arabs lived in tribes.
was a merchant from
.And preached a new religion:
Islam taught that people should worship Allah,
their only God.
He moved to
This date is known as
, and marks the start of the muslim calendar.In
he conquered Mecca.
is the sacred book of the Muslims.
These are called the
of their faith:
: to testify that, there is no other God
but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.
:to pray five times a day.
j:to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca,if possible.
:to fast during the month of Ramadan.
:to give alms to the poor.
Muslims spread their religion through
The expansion of Islam:
The highest authority of the empire
.The first were direct descendents
was assassinated and the
During te Umayyad period, they moved the capital to
.They conquered many territories,from Persia to the Iberian Peninsula.
, a rebellion ended the
came into power.Baghdad became te new capital of the empire.
were the most important people in the Islamic world.
The expansion of Islam.
a brilliant civilization:
was based on
by land and sea.
, or market was the centre of a city's activity.
The Muslims introduced
They invented the
use of zero
.They contributed to
The Carolingian Empire:
After the fall of the
in France. The kings were weak.
The most important king was
He defeated the Muslims in France,
Battle of Tours
Pippin the Short
, Martel's son,was succeeded by
his son Charlemagne,who wanted to restore the Western Roman Empire.He conquered the Lombard kingdom.
crowned Charlemagne as the new Emperor of the West
Charlemagne divided the Empire
to control the
The division of the Empire:
was divided among his sons.
Charlemagne had one surviving son;
the Pious.When he died the Empire was divided among his sons:Charles, Louis and Lothair.
They signed the
Treaty of Verdum
which confirmed the division.
11 AND 12 CENTURY
A FEUDAL SOCIETY
850 to 1100 d.C
Europe was divided and weak.
Three new peoples invaded Europe.
_The Vikings came from Scandinavia.
they founded Kingdoms.
-The Hungarians came from the
steppes of Asia.
They founded Hungary.
-The Saracens were Muslim pirates
who attacked the Mediterranean coasts of Europe.
It was a climate of violence in Europe.
Many people said that these wars were a punishment of God, and a sign that the world would end in the year 1000.
After the Carolingian Empire,Europe was
divided into numerous kingdoms.
Peasants turned to the nobles,for help.
In exchange for protection, the peasants
to work for the nobles.
they became noble's serfs.
The nobles had complete power over their
lands. the king's power was limited to the
lands he controlled directly.
The origin of feudalism.
The king and his court.
Under feudalism,the king's power was very limited.
The court was formed by a group of lawyers,clergy and soldiers.Their decisions usually only affected the king's lands.
The king's army was very small.Defence depended on his vassal's private armies.
Nobles received land in exchange for swearing
allegiance to the king.
Part of the land, called the
,was used by
the lord himself.
The peasants had to pay the
The lords took a
,from the merchants who crossed their bridges and their lands.
Was divided in three groups,
were the knights and their
were the monks and priests.
were mainly peasants,but also craftsmen and merchants.
The nobles and clergy were
they had advantages.
Nobles,knights and noblewomen.
was the noble's main activity.
Noble's sons started their
when they were eight.They served as
to an important noble and learned to fight.
At the age of fifteen they became
Nobles had to be ready to go to war.They trained in
Her most important function was to
and have children,to continue the family line.
-Noblewomen organised the servants, educated the children and did sewing an weaving.
-They had to obey their husbands.They rarely left the castle.
-Women who did not marry went into convents.
Regular Clergy: abbot
Superiors of convents and
monasteries and convents
Nuns,monks and frions.
SERFS AND FREEMEN.
90% of population were peasants.
There were two different groups:
: They were completely subjected
to the lord's authority .
they couldn't leave the fief,or get married without permission.
:They could leave the fief,and take personal decisions.
They worked in the fief and paid a
.They paid a
(from their harvest) to the Church.
THE PEASANT'S WORK
The whole family,including children,
Every year they left half of their land fallow so that it could recover and become fertile again
The peasant's main crops were cereals,for making
Some families had one or two animals.
Agricultural and population
Started to increase:
-New land was created,cutting down forests
and draining marshes.
three-year system of crop rotation
ploughed the soil more efficiently.
-In Mediterranean areas, irrigation became more widespread and new crops qer introduced.
wind and water mills
,which could do the work of forty people.
Food production increased and there was less hunger.
Trade and banking
There were two important sea routes:
and Italian cities with Muslim ports and the
Atlantic and Baltic route
by a merchant's association,the
.The route linked the ports of Portugal and Cantabria with Flemish,German and Russian cities.
Banking techniques changed and new financial methods were developed:
Bills of exchange
made it unnecessary
The importance of cities in the 12 century
Cities began to grow in the 12 century.
appeared,near a castle or monastery,at a crossroads or on a trade route.
The population growth because:
-New farming techniques resulted in less work for people.Many peasants had to migrate to the cities to find work.
There was a revival in trade.Merchants went to cities where the markets were.
-Cities offered a better life.
,different kind of people lived in cities:
-Some merchants were very rich.
-Most were craftsmen,shopkeepers or worked in domestic service.
-Some were poor.
Groups of Jewish lived in
.Muslim people lived in
Craftsmen,Guilds and Trades.
They made their products by hand. They worked in small
Craftsmen of the same profession lived in the same street.
From the 12 century all artisans in the same profession joined a guild.
Each guild had its own
member's rights and obligations
.Guilds controlled production and distributed raw materials.They controlled the number of workers and established materials.Nobody could work
if they didn't join a guild.
There were three categories of craftsmen:
,owned the tools,the workshops
and the raw materials.They ran and controlled the guilds.
were skilled craftsmen who received wages.
were young men who wanted to learn a trade.They lived in their master's house and worked for him.They didn't receive any payment.
The royal authority.
In the 12 century medieval economies improved and the kings collected more taxes.They created their own
They strengthened the governments in their kingdoms.
The cities began to create parliaments.
The only people who were represented were the
.Parliament only met when the king called meeting.
many conflicts were caused by
ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC ART
Romanesque art, painting ,sculpture and architecture.
From the 11 century anew art style of art
spread throughout Western Europe.It is known
as Romanesque because it is reminiscent of Roman art.This art aimed to spread religion
and bring people closer to God.
:The main Romanesque buildings were made by stone.
:In the Middle Ages art had an educational and religious function.The
were decorated with a lot of objects.Two main themes were shown:
Virgin and Child
Christ on the Cross
:the most important paintings were inside churches.Human figures were rigid and schematic.-
:was common on walls,especially near the altar.
:was used on altars and small altarpieces.
:were small paintings
Gothic sculpture,painting and architecture.
At the end of the 12 century:
The Romanesque style gave way to the Gothic style,which originated in France,and quickly spread throughout Europe.Gothic sculpture was religious and educational too.
:except in Italy,mural painting
became less common,and was replaced
painting on wood became popular.Some of the main features of Gothic painting are
; the use of
of the figures.
:The figures became independent,more
was the commonly used material,but
became increasingly popular.
were made for the cathedrals and churches,
were sculpted on the outside of cathedrals.
:Gothic art,like the Romanesque,was
religious,but it also showed the
of the cities.The most representative building was the
.The cathedral became the
of the city.
were held here. Gothic cathedrals were built using
new architectural techniques
.They were very different from Romanesque cathedrals.