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TIMELINE

timeline
by

Cata Miralles

on 7 November 2013

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Transcript of TIMELINE

THE
TIMELINE
3000 millions
years ago.
Without them we
couldn't have life.
They form it!
By: Cata Miralles.
The life appears:the
CELLS.
It was a very big
explosion. It created

t
he
Milky Way
.
4'6 billions years ago.
BIG BANG
THE
The evolve of the species.
THE CELL
THE EVOLVE OF THE SPECIES
evolve.
One of them evolve until became
All of the animals
in the animals who are living
in the Earth today, like: the bird
the monkey, the snake...
Hominids
P
a
l
e
o
l
i
t
h
i
c
N
e
o
l
i
t
h
i
c
Australopithecus
3.500.000/2.500.000 years.
Homo Habilis
2.300.000/
1.800.000 years
Homo Erectus
1.900.000/400.000
years
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
150.000/35.000
years
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
120.000 years (40.000 years in Europe)
The
Age of Metals
The people started to use the metal; first the bronze.
The people started to
use
the metals;the first was the
bronze.
They built a lot of constructions.
For example; the

dolmen.
The

menhir
was a very big rock nailed on the ground vertically.The people used it for mark the limit of a place or property.
And finally, the
cromlech.
People said that it was a place where
the druids did
magic ceremonies
.
It was formed by
menhirs
and
dolmens.

The most important cromlech is the
Stonehenge
in England.
This is the estructure of the
Stonehenge
.
(fire)

(weapons with stone)
(weapons more advanced)
The first civilizations:
Egypt
and
Mesopotamia.
The people of
Mesopotamia
had and have very good
buildings like this
pyramid
.
The ''socially'' in Egypt was very strict.
The
pharaoh
, was the king of all and considered a god.
His servants were always at your disposition.
There was a
type
. He wrote all of the pharaoh.
Egypt: the socially.
THe egyptian religion:
The pharaon was buried in a pyramid with her possesions: her servants, objects...
For it, the slaves had to build very big consructions
(pyramids)
for he.
The egyptian religion said that after the die you go to a judice, diriged to the gods. they put your hearth in a balance and a plome, if the plome was heavy you were eaten by a
best
.If it was the contrary you have the etern life.
The trial of Osiris:
The trial of Osiris.
Anubis
did
the
mummification
process
The Egyptian gods.
They started to build weapons (with stone)
for hunting.
They began to live always in the same place;they became
sedentaries.
They were
nomads
; because they moved from a place to another.
Greece was organized in small towns
called
polis.
Democracy:
The greeks created the
democracy.
Alejandro Magno:
He conquered a lot of lands.
From Greece to Asia.
A
parliament
.
GREECE
These are the lands that Alejandro Magno conquered.
This is a
polis
.
They used it
like tombs.
The Roman Empire.
The decline of the Roman Empire:
Germanic tribes lived to the north
of the Romans called the
barbarians.
In 395, Emperor Theodosius divided the
empire;the
Western Roman Empire
and the
Eastern Roman Empire.
This, marks the
beggining of the
Middle Ages.
The Germanic Kingdoms:
-The
Franks
, in France.
-The
Visigoths
, in Spain.
-The
Ostrogoths
, and later the
Lombards
in
Italy.
-The
Angles
and the
Saxons
, in Britain.
Cities
declined and people moved to the countryside.
The Romans and the Germanic tribes had different laws customs and religions.But in some places the Germanic peoples spoke
Latin
and became
Christian
.
6 century
The
Visigoths
:
In 410, the Visigoths attacked Rome.
six years later,
Honorius
the
Emperor of
the West
, asked the Visigoths for help to
expel other germanic peoples.In exchange, they received lands in south-est
Gaul (France)
.
At the beginning of the 6 century, the Franks
expelled the Visigoths from Gaul.Then, they went to the Iberian Peninsula and made
Toledo
its capit
al.
During the second half of the
7 century,
there was a constant fighting between the kings
and nobles.The
Visigothic
kingdom disappeared after the
Muslim invasion
in
711.
The
Byzantine Empire
:
The Eastern Roman Empire
was richer than The Western
Roman Empire, and it resisted the Germanic
invasions.Its capital city was
Constantinople
;
formerly
Byzantium
.
Justinian:
He was the most important Byzantine
Emperor.He ruled with his wife
Theodora
;
between 527 and 565.
His armies conquered many territories in
North Africa,the Iberian Peninsula and Italy.
Under Justinian:
-The
emperor
,or
basileus
, had great power.
-The famous
Justinian Code
modernised Roman
law.
A slow decline:
After Justinian's death, The
Byzantine Empire began to lose
territory.
By the 15 century,only
Constantinople
remained. in 1453,the city was conquered by the
Turks
.
This, marked the end of the
Middle Ages.
Tradition and religion:
At first, the Byzantine Empire
followed the traditions of the Roman
Empire.It adopted an increasing number of
Greek customs.
-
Greek
replaced
Latin
as the official language.
-In 1054, there was a separation between the
Roman Catholic Church
and the
Byzantine Orthodox Church
,called the
East-West Schism.
In the
8 century
,the emperors tried
to prohibit the worship of holy images
or icons.
Orthodox monks
evangelized the peoples
of Eastern Europe.Today,
Orthodoxy
is the
main form of Christianity in Russia,Lithuania,
Belarus,Bulgaria,Romania and Greece.
Muhammad,the founder of Islam:
Arabia is a large peninsula between the Red
Sea and the Persian Gulf.The Arabs lived in tribes.
Muhammad
was a merchant from
Mecca
.And preached a new religion:
Islam.
Islam taught that people should worship Allah,
their only God.
He moved to
Medina
in
622.
This date is known as
Hegira
, and marks the start of the muslim calendar.In
628
he conquered Mecca.
Islamic religion:
The
Koran
is the sacred book of the Muslims.
These are called the
five pillars
of their faith:
-
Shahadah
: to testify that, there is no other God
but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.
-
Salah
:to pray five times a day.
-
Haj
j:to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca,if possible.
-
Sawn
:to fast during the month of Ramadan.
_
Zahah
:to give alms to the poor.
Muslims spread their religion through
jihad
or
holy war
.
The expansion of Islam:
The highest authority of the empire
was the
caliph
.The first were direct descendents
of Muhammad.
In
661
,
Caliph Ali
was assassinated and the
Umayyad family
took power.
During te Umayyad period, they moved the capital to
Damascus
.They conquered many territories,from Persia to the Iberian Peninsula.
In
750
, a rebellion ended the
Umayyad dinasty
and
Abbasid family
came into power.Baghdad became te new capital of the empire.
After the
13 century
,the
Turks
were the most important people in the Islamic world.
The expansion of Islam.
a brilliant civilization:
The
Islamic economy
was based on
agriculture
,
craftmanship
and
trade
.Merchants travelled
by land and sea.
The
souk
, or market was the centre of a city's activity.
The Muslims introduced
Asian inventions
such as
gunpowder
and the
compass
.
They invented the
use of zero
,
Arabic numerals
and
algebra
.They contributed to
medicine
.
The Carolingian Empire:
After the fall of the
Roman Empire
,
the
Frankish kingdom
was established
in France. The kings were weak.
The most important king was
Charles Martel
.
He defeated the Muslims in France,
at the
Battle of Tours
in
732
.
Pippin the Short
, Martel's son,was succeeded by
his son Charlemagne,who wanted to restore the Western Roman Empire.He conquered the Lombard kingdom.
In
800
, the
Pope
crowned Charlemagne as the new Emperor of the West
Government:
Charlemagne divided the Empire
into
counties
.He appointed
military
governors
to control the
marches
.
The division of the Empire:
527-565
Charlemagne's kingdom
was divided among his sons.
Charlemagne had one surviving son;
Louis
the Pious.When he died the Empire was divided among his sons:Charles, Louis and Lothair.
They signed the
Treaty of Verdum

(843)
which confirmed the division.
11 AND 12 CENTURY
A FEUDAL SOCIETY
850 to 1100 d.C
Europe was divided and weak.
Three new peoples invaded Europe.
_The Vikings came from Scandinavia.
they founded Kingdoms.
-The Hungarians came from the
steppes of Asia.
They founded Hungary.
-The Saracens were Muslim pirates
who attacked the Mediterranean coasts of Europe.
It was a climate of violence in Europe.
Many people said that these wars were a punishment of God, and a sign that the world would end in the year 1000.
After the Carolingian Empire,Europe was
divided into numerous kingdoms.
Peasants turned to the nobles,for help.
In exchange for protection, the peasants
had
to work for the nobles.
they became noble's serfs.
Feudalism society:
The nobles had complete power over their
lands. the king's power was limited to the
lands he controlled directly.
The origin of feudalism.
The king and his court.
Under feudalism,the king's power was very limited.
The court was formed by a group of lawyers,clergy and soldiers.Their decisions usually only affected the king's lands.
The king's army was very small.Defence depended on his vassal's private armies.
THE FIEFS.
Nobles received land in exchange for swearing
allegiance to the king.
Part of the land, called the
demesne
,was used by
the lord himself.
The peasants had to pay the
rent
(with money,cloths,food..)
The lords took a
toll
,from the merchants who crossed their bridges and their lands.
MEDIEVAL SOCIETY.
Was divided in three groups,
called estates:
-The
nobles
were the knights and their
families.
-The
clergy
were the monks and priests.
-The
workers
were mainly peasants,but also craftsmen and merchants.
The nobles and clergy were
privileged states
;
they had advantages.
Nobles,knights and noblewomen.
War
was the noble's main activity.
Noble's sons started their
military training
when they were eight.They served as
pages
to an important noble and learned to fight.
At the age of fifteen they became
squires
.And after:
knights
.
Nobles had to be ready to go to war.They trained in
tournaments
.
Noblewomen:
Her most important function was to
and have children,to continue the family line.
-Noblewomen organised the servants, educated the children and did sewing an weaving.
-They had to obey their husbands.They rarely left the castle.
-Women who did not marry went into convents.
THE CHURCH.
POPE
Secular Clergy:
Bishops.
Regular Clergy: abbot
Priests
Superiors of convents and
monasteries and convents
.
Nuns,monks and frions.
SERFS AND FREEMEN.
90% of population were peasants.
There were two different groups:
-
SERFS
: They were completely subjected
to the lord's authority .
they couldn't leave the fief,or get married without permission.
_
FREEMEN
:They could leave the fief,and take personal decisions.
They worked in the fief and paid a
rent
.They paid a
tithe
(from their harvest) to the Church.
THE PEASANT'S WORK
The whole family,including children,
worked from
sunrise
to
sunset
.
Every year they left half of their land fallow so that it could recover and become fertile again
(TWO-YEAR ROTATION)
.
The peasant's main crops were cereals,for making
bread
and
beer
.
Some families had one or two animals.
Europe
MEDIEVAL SOCIETY
12 CENTURY.
Agricultural and population
Started to increase:
-New land was created,cutting down forests
and draining marshes.
-The
three-year system of crop rotation
was established.
-The
mouldboard plough
ploughed the soil more efficiently.
-In Mediterranean areas, irrigation became more widespread and new crops qer introduced.
-There were
wind and water mills
,which could do the work of forty people.
Food production increased and there was less hunger.
Trade and banking
There were two important sea routes:
-The
Mediterranean route
linked Spanish
and Italian cities with Muslim ports and the
Byzantine Empire.
-The
Atlantic and Baltic route
was dominated
by a merchant's association,the
Hanseatic

League
.The route linked the ports of Portugal and Cantabria with Flemish,German and Russian cities.
Banking techniques changed and new financial methods were developed:
-
Payment
was introduced.
-
Bills of exchange
made it unnecessary
The importance of cities in the 12 century

Cities began to grow in the 12 century.
Old cities
revived and
new cities
appeared,near a castle or monastery,at a crossroads or on a trade route.
The population growth because:
-New farming techniques resulted in less work for people.Many peasants had to migrate to the cities to find work.
There was a revival in trade.Merchants went to cities where the markets were.
-Cities offered a better life.
Inhabitants
,different kind of people lived in cities:
-Some merchants were very rich.
-Most were craftsmen,shopkeepers or worked in domestic service.
-Some were poor.
Groups of Jewish lived in
Jewish Quarters
or
Ghettoes
.Muslim people lived in
Moorish quarters.
Craftsmen,Guilds and Trades.
Craftsmen:
They made their products by hand. They worked in small
workshops
.
Craftsmen of the same profession lived in the same street.
Guilds:
From the 12 century all artisans in the same profession joined a guild.
Each guild had its own
statute
,which established
member's rights and obligations
.Guilds controlled production and distributed raw materials.They controlled the number of workers and established materials.Nobody could work

in a
trade
if they didn't join a guild.
Trades:
There were three categories of craftsmen:
-
Master craftsmen
,owned the tools,the workshops
and the raw materials.They ran and controlled the guilds.
-
Journeymen
were skilled craftsmen who received wages.
-
Apprentices
were young men who wanted to learn a trade.They lived in their master's house and worked for him.They didn't receive any payment.
The royal authority.
In the 12 century medieval economies improved and the kings collected more taxes.They created their own
armies
.
They strengthened the governments in their kingdoms.
PARLIAMENTS:
The cities began to create parliaments.
The only people who were represented were the
king
,the
nobles
,the
clergy
and the
city mayors
.Parliament only met when the king called meeting.
Conflicts between

Europeans kingdoms
:
many conflicts were caused by
disputes
over
succession
.
ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC ART
11 century
.
Romanesque art, painting ,sculpture and architecture.
From the 11 century anew art style of art
spread throughout Western Europe.It is known
as Romanesque because it is reminiscent of Roman art.This art aimed to spread religion
and bring people closer to God.
Architecture
:The main Romanesque buildings were made by stone.
Sculpture
:In the Middle Ages art had an educational and religious function.The
Capitals
and he
cloisters
were decorated with a lot of objects.Two main themes were shown:
Virgin and Child
and
Christ on the Cross
.
Painting
:the most important paintings were inside churches.Human figures were rigid and schematic.-
Mural painting
:was common on walls,especially near the altar.
-
Panel painting
:was used on altars and small altarpieces.
-
Miniatures
:were small paintings
Gothic sculpture,painting and architecture.
At the end of the 12 century:
The Romanesque style gave way to the Gothic style,which originated in France,and quickly spread throughout Europe.Gothic sculpture was religious and educational too.
Painting
:except in Italy,mural painting
became less common,and was replaced
by large
stained glass
windows.Later,
painting on wood became popular.Some of the main features of Gothic painting are
bright colours
; the use of
gold
;background
landscapes
;greater
realism
and
movement
of the figures.
Sculpture
:The figures became independent,more
realistic
and
natural
.
Stone
was the commonly used material,but
wood
became increasingly popular.
Great
altarpieces
were made for the cathedrals and churches,
Gargoyles
were sculpted on the outside of cathedrals.
Architecture
:Gothic art,like the Romanesque,was
religious,but it also showed the
power
and
wealth
of the cities.The most representative building was the
cathedral
.The cathedral became the
centre
of the city.
Religious services
were held here. Gothic cathedrals were built using
new architectural techniques
.They were very different from Romanesque cathedrals.
Full transcript