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ART

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by

Sandeep Sidhu

on 1 April 2015

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Transcript of ART

History
The first person born through IVF was Louis Brown, born on July 25, 1978
Robert Edwards won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work in the development of In Vitro fertilization (IVF)
About four million people have been born through IVF and about 20 to 30 percent of the fertilized eggs have led to a birth of a child.
Before women were required to remain in the clinic to be monitored but now women are treated as day patients
1) Eggs monitored in Ovaries, and hormones given to female to produce eggs.
2) Eggs are extracted from female and sperm from male is mixed in lab.
3) After gametes produce an embryo, result is reinserted into woman’s uterus
Important: The woman doesn’t have to be the woman who gave the egg.
Is ART Ethical?
ART
By:Kevin Tam, Meghana Sai Kiran, Prerana Swaroop and Sandeep Sidhu
IVF, Surrogate Mothers and Gamete Donation
ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY
What is Surrogacy?
Fertility Treatment (achieving pregnancy) : deals with problems of infertility
Ex: Artificial Insemination, IVF, Surrogate Mother, Gamete Donation
Effectively Lab Work done to produce Offspring
Success Rate: Achieving pregnancy varies on several factors:
Age parents, reason infertility, clinic, Type ART, gametes/embryos frozen, etc.
2009 CDC Report: average 29.4% all cycles (embryo) , 22.4% live baby
Average Costs: ART is extremely expensive, time-consuming, and difficult.
Varies in Nation - US: about $12,400 (without surrogate), Several consulting agencies and associations
Little documented knowledge of effects and risks associated

ART
Artificial Insemination
IVF
IVF: In Vitro Fertilization = “test tube”, most common and newest form of ART
Steps: Similar to artificial insemination with advanced equipment
1) Eggs retrieved (minor surgery) = ultrasound, hollow needle in pelvic area
2) Insemination: eggs and sperm encouraged to mix (direct contact) = embryo
Fertilized egg = monitored --> confirm as embryo (wait 3-5 days)
3) Embryo transferred uterus: catheter, small tube (encourage Implantation)

Gamete Donation
Gamete Donation: giving sperm, eggs, both, or embryos to another person/couple that has problems with pregnancy
Opportunity couple have child : genetic link 1 of 2 parents
1 in 7 couples who wish to have children experience difficulties
Donors: experience pregnancy, birth event
In 2008, 1600 children were born as a result of UK based treatment involving gamete donation

Surrogate Mothers
Surrogacy: (S. mom) = Other woman gives birth to couple’s baby (controversial)
Two types: Traditional (Surrogate - Genetic mom) vs Gestational (IVF, intended mom).
Reasons - Infertility (after other ART) , medical problems/conditions, lifestyle
Woman: age, removed uterus, medical risk pregnancy
Sexual Orientation: (Ex: Gay) or marital status
Surrogate = family (close relative, friend) or agency (business/association)
No regulations surrogate (recommendations vary)
Family -> risk mixing genes (described incest) vs Business: question background
Screening - harmful diseases (HIV, Hepatitis, etc), success pregnancy, legal contract (surrogate gives up baby)

The Future Of ART
Works Cited
What is ART?

•Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy. It is reproductive technology used primarily for infertility treatments, and is also known as fertility treatment.

*Infertility: the inability of a couple to have a baby



,
Surrogacy: Controversy other woman having couple’s baby
Surrogacy : Commercial (financial reward) vs Altruistic (no payment)
Countries: Different laws in different countries / states (US)
Legal: India, Ukraine, California (Business)
Altruistic (no pay): Legal - Australia / many states (US)
Surrogate = no financial gain (Medical cost, travel, off work, etc.)
Traditional or Gestational surrogate
Commercial Illegal: UK, Ireland, Denmark, Belgium, Forbidden (all forms): France, Germany, Italy and Spain.

Tools Required for Surrogacy
Difference Between Test Tube Babies and Surrogate babies
Test Tube Baby
: scientifically known as In Vitro Fertilization is the process of fertilizing an egg outside of the woman’s body.
Surrogacy
: the arrangement when a woman agrees to carry a baby for another couple or person.
Cost of Surrogacy

In general, the cost for gestational surrogacy (including all agency fees,
attorneys' fees, screening and
surrogate fees, and medical and
insurance costs) ranges from
around $100,000 to $150,000, depending the program chosen
Advantages
and
Disadvantages


Advantage
:
If a woman can't conceive, surrogacy creates a chance for them and their partner to parent a child who is at least partially genetically theirs
Disadvantages
:
Surrogacy is a long and tedious process, so there are a lot of processes that are involved and therefore require patience on the part of the intended parents
It generally takes a lot of searching to find a surrogate mother who will be healthy and will be willing to your conditions but there have been issues when surrogate mothers have not wanted to let go of the child, thereby complicating the whole scenario
1."Assisted Reproductive Technology." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 6 Nov. 2014. Web. 26 Jan. 2015. <http://www.cdc.gov/art/index.html>.

2.Reference, WebMD. "In VItro Fertilization (IVF) Facts, Success Rates, Multiple Births, What to Expect." WebMD. WebMD. Web. 26 Jan. 2015. <http://www.webmd.com/infertility-and-reproduction/guide/in-vitro-fertilization>.

3."In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Costs, Transfer and More." American Pregnancy Association. 24 Apr. 2012. Web. 26 Jan. 2015. <http://americanpregnancy.org/infertility/in-vitro-fertilization/>.

4."Father of In Vitro Fertilization Wins Nobel Prize : DNews." DNews. Web. 26 Jan. 2015. <http://news.discovery.com/human/in-vitro-fertlization-nobel.htm>.

5.Saxena, Pikee, Archana Mishra, and Sonia Malik. "Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues." Indian Journal of Community Medicine : Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd. Web. 26 Jan. 2015. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3531011>.
Works Cited 2
6."Not Getting Pregnant ? Find Out Why." India Pregnancy. 6 Jan. 2015. Web. 26 Jan. 2015. <http://www.indiapregnancy.com/why-not-pregnant-baby-fail/>.

7."What Is Surrogacy?" YouTube. YouTube. Web. 26 Jan. 2015. <
Future ART = Safety, Research, Regulation
ART: more regulated, research complete on effects
Center Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) : educate public, safety
Increase amount babies born + Safer babies and mothers
Current tech: not 100% safe -> safety and higher success rate
Federal regulation : decrease amount illegal businesses
Ultimate Goal: Educate public about ART / Target Public Misconceptions

Ultrasound imaging to guide a hollow needle through the pelvic cavity to remove the eggs
Medication is provided to reduce and remove potential discomfort.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
Catheter or small tube is inserted into the uterus to transfer the embryos
The Religious Aspects
8."Gamete And Embryo Donation: Deciding Whether to Tell." American Society for Reproductive Medicine. American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 23 Jan. 2015. <http://www.asrm.org/FACTSHEET_Gamete_Donation_Deciding_Whether_To_Tell/>.

9. Lewens, Tim. "Blood, Gamete and Other Donation." Breakout Session 1: Donation for Medical Treatment 1: 7. Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Web.

10. "Anticipated Costs for Gestational Surrogacy." Circle Surrogacy. Circle Surrogacy, LTD. Web. 23 Jan. 2015. <http://www.circlesurrogacy.com/costs>.
Christianity:
The Roman Catholic Church opposes all kinds of ART and artificial contraception because they separate the procreative goal of marital sex from the goal of uniting married couples
Some of the more liberal Protestant denominations support ART
Islam
The Islamic community, after the fatwa on ART by Al-Azhar University, largely accepts ART
Judaism
Defining Jewish views on assisted reproductive technology is problematic since there is substantial overlap in opinions and moral authority
Full transcript