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Decades Project- 1960's
Transcript of Decades Project- 1960's
Policies -Overall, civil rights legislation incrementally increased the rights of African Americans. Important Legislation - civil rights movement
- counterculture (works into idea of civil rights people fighting for individual freedom)
- Soviet v US cold war Theme 1. Shmoop. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013. <http://www.shmoop.com/1960s/timeline.html>.
2. Our Documents. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013. <http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=97>.
3. History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/1960_civil_rights_act.htm>
4. Encyclopedia.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3437700963.html>.
5. National Archives. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013. <http://www.archives.gov/
6. Martin Luther King Jr. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013.
7. http://elcoushistory.tripod.com/society1960.html. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013.
8. http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade60.html. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013.
9. http://voices.yahoo.com/best-5-memorable-inventions-1960s-11983586.html?cat=7. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013.
10. http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/60smusic.html. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2013.
11. History. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/
12. AP US History. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://www.apstudynotes.org/
"Engel v. Vitale." Oyez. The Oyez Project at IIT, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1961/1961_468/>.
"Escobedo v. Illinois." Oyez. The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1963/1963_615>.
Kelly, Martin. "Overview of Civil Rights Legislation, Supreme Court Cases, and Activities." American History. About.com, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://americanhistory.about.com/od/civilrights/a/civilrights1.htm>.
"List of Landmark Court Decisions in the United States." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 May 2013. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_landmark_court_decisions_in_the_United_States>.
"Loving v. Virginia: The Case Over Interracial Marriage." American Civil Liberties Union. ACLU, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/loving-v-virginia-case-over-interracial-marriage>.
McBride, Alex. "The Supreme Court History: Expanding Civil Rights." PBS. PBS, Dec. 2006. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_gideon.html>.
"Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District." Oyez. The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1968/1968_21>.
"Mapp v. Ohio (1961)." Bill of Rights Institute. Bill of Rights Institute, 2010. Web. 04 June 2013. <http://billofrightsinstitute.org/resources/educator-resources/lessons-plans/landmark-cases-and-the-constitution/mapp-v-ohio-1961/>.
Cummingham, Daniel. "The '60s - Full of Hope and Despair in U.S. Domestic Policy." Suit101. Suit101, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://suite101.com/article/the-60s---full-of-hope-and-dispair-in-domestic-policy-a229815>.
"Domestic Politics in the 1960s." SparkNotes. Sparknotes, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013.
"Foreign policy of the John F. Kennedy administration." Wikipedia. N.p.: n.p., 2013. N. pag. Print.
"Lyndon Baines Johnson Front Page." Miller Center. University of Virginia, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://millercenter.org/president/lbjohnson/essays/biography/5>.
"Nixon’s Foreign Policy." US Department of State Office of the Historian. US Department of State, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/short-history/nixon-foreignpolicy>.
"Richard Milhous Nixon Front Page." Miller Center University of Virginia. University of Virginia, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://millercenter.org/president/nixon/essays/biography/5>. Works Cited Passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Great Society program
-aid to education, attack on disease, Medicare, Medicaid, urban renewal, conservation, a wide-scale fight against poverty, control and prevention of crime, and removal of obstacles to the right to vote Civil Rights Act 1960 -Federal government oversaw voter registration polls (1)
-There were consequences for suppressing the right to vote (2)
-The Civil Rights Commission was upheld from the Civil Rights Act 1957 (2)
- Analyzed civil rights policies
- Investigated civil rights infringement cases about voting, education, employment, transportation, housing, and the administration of justice (4) Civil Rights Act 1964 - Before its passage, this act generated much congressional opposition. It had to bypass a Senate filibuster and a House Committee (3)
-Outlawed discrimination in public places and prohibited employment discrimination on basis of race, ethnicity, religion (1)
-Gender discrimination ban added to the bill at the last minute (5)
-Title VII of the act created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to carry out the new legislation (5) Voting Rights Act 1965 -Created in response to the actions taken in Selma to prevent African Americans from voting. It was promoted by Martin Luther King Jr. in a march from Selma to Montgomery (6)
-Outlawed literacy tests (1)
-President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the act and stated that it was "a triumph for freedom as huge as any victory that has ever been won on any battlefield" (6) Housing Discrimination Ban (Open Housing Act) 1968 Major Cultural
Events Civil Rights Movement Martian Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X became prominent leaders in the civil rights movement (7)
Organizations such as The Black Panthers, The Black Nationalist Movement, and the Nation of Islam, used violent methods. (7)
Nonviolent organizations included the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee (SNCC), and the National Organization for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). (7) Literature Literature reflected political and social issues of America (8)
ex: Harper Lee's "To Kill a Mockingbird"
- describes social differences between races in a small southern town (8) Sylvia Plath (The Bell Jar) / Mary McCarthy (The Group)
- describe women in roles outside of the "happy wife" and mother of the 50s (8)
Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique (8)
African American authors Gwendolyn Brooks, Margaret Wilker Alexander, and Maya Angelou - wrote about gender and race/ helped promote new insights on feminism (8) Women and Feminism Music “British Invasion” British rock bands found mainstream success in the United States, as well as worldwide (10)
Began 1963 with the arrival of the Beatles (10)
-The Beatles- Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, and Starkey (aka Ringo Starr) (7)
Other popular bands included, The Rolling Stones, The Who, and The Animals (10) Folk Rock and Protest Music Rock- popular genre mid-sixties and grew out the protest movements (10)
Folk music was one of the first movements in music (7)
Songs about political idealism (7)
musicians- ex: Bob Dylan(7)
Reached peak between 1963 and 1965 (7) Rock Associated with the hippie counterculture and hallucinogenic drug use (10)
Rock bands- Jefferson Airplane and the Grateful Dead and drug supporters, such as Leary and Kesey led to the increase of drugs and hippies (7)
Surf Rock- The Beach Boys (10)
Psychedelic rock popular in later half of the 60s (10)
The Beatles, The Doors, The Jimi Hendrix Experience, Pink Floyd (10) Motown Tamla Motown Record Company- specialized in black rhythm and blues--> helped create beginning of female groups such and Glady's Knight and the Pips, the Supremes, and Aretha Franklin and also African American men, such as Jimi Hendrix and James Brown (8)
Major significance in terms of the Civil rights movement and integration in American society (10)
Motown consisted mainly of African American groups, singers, songwriters, and management (10)
Two of the most influential groups to come out of the Motown sound were Smokey Robinson and the Miracles and Diana Ross and the Supremes (10)
Other popular Motown and R&B artists included The Temptations, Stevie Wonder,Aretha Franklin, and the Jackson Five (10) Hippies and Drugs Hippies began in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco (7)
1965 LSD became available --> "drug-induced revolution against traditional American values" (7)
Through the excessive amount of LSD and marijuana, millions of people were sold to the beliefs of hippies-"free love and free thinking" (7) Counterculture Tens of thousands white middle-class teenagers become hippies (7)
Challenge traditional social practices(ex: marriage, religion, and child upbringing) (7)
Fashion changed: men grew long hair and beards/ women wore love beads and peasant dresses (7)
Women used birth control pills, allowing for sexual freedom (7)
Many young people turn from Protestant religion to mystic eastern religions (Transcendental Meditation or Zen Buddhism)(8)
Decline in the respect for authority (8)
Crime rates drastically increase (nine times the rate of the 1950s)(8)
LSD use encouraged as a mind-opening drug (8) Health and Environmental Concerns Rachel Carson- Silent Spring - environmental movement (8)
Ralph Jader- Unsafe a any Speed - led to consumer movement(8)
Surgeon general claimed smoking was a health hazard and required cigarette manufacturers to place warning labels on all ads and packages in 1965 (8) The space race begun by the soviets in 1957 (8)
Alan Shepard- first American in space 1961 (8)
1963 John Glenn first American to orbit the earth (8)
Neil Armstrong ad Buzz Aldrin, Apollo XI- first men to walk on the moon 1969 (8) The Space Race Sports Olympics (Rome 1960) - Wilma Rudoph won gold in 100m and 200m runs (8)
Muhammad Ali won gold as light heavyweight boxer (8)
Baseballs greats- Willie Mays, Roberto Clemente, and Bob Gibson (8)
Star football - Bill Russell, Wilt Chamberlain, Elvin Hayes, and Elgin Baylor (8)
Arther Ashe became the first black man to win the Us tennis Championship title in 1968 (8)
Arnold Palmer dominated gold in 1960s and Jack Nicklaus also began his golf career (8) Astroturf (1966) David Webb Chaney - created artificial grass(9)
-Docutel was the company to manufacture them and others soon followed(9)
-Not initially embraced by the mass until 1970s due to Citibank and New Yorkers(9)
Keylar (1965) Created by Stephanie L. Kwolek (9)
-Widely used in the 1970s--> used to create bullet proof vests (9)
Track Cartridge (1965) (9) Inventions and Technology In 1967, a south African tree frog was the first vertebrate to be cloned (8)
Dr. Denton Cooley implanted the first artificial heart in a human (8) - Citizens of America were not responsible for monitoring civil rights violations (12)
- In 1965,250,000 African Americans were newly registered voters and by 1968 black voter registration increased to over 700,000
- African Americans moved South(12)
- Affirmative action led to universities and employers having specific quotas to fulfill for minorities
- Opposition arose claiming affirmative action was "reverse discrimination" because quotas made physical characteristic part of the admission process over ability. (12) - Discrimination in the process of selling, renting or financing houses based on race, religion, nationality and gender was made illegal (11)
- Last major legislative achievement of Civil Rights Era (11) EFFECTS Natasha Demick, Hope Friedman, Kayleah Griffen, Kelsey Griffen, Camille DerDerian KENNEDY
ADMINISTRATION ·Began assigning Special Forces military personnel to Vietnam
·Initiated the creation of Peace Corps, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and Alliance for Progress
·Pushed civil rights on many fronts Bay of the pigs: Fidel Castro leader of Cuba --> fell to communism (Soviet Support)
-US secretly trains Cuban captives to attack and invade
-Castro anticipated attack and killed several exiles and held others captive
- Failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion was a tremendous embarrassment for JFK and US
-Kennedy takes responsibility, vowing never to appear ‘weak’ on Communism again Peaceful resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis --> informed the nation of the crisis, announcing the quarantine and demanding the removal of Soviet missiles
struck a deal: the Soviet Union agreed to remove the missiles in exchange for the United States' no invasion pledge and dismantlement of PGM-19 Jupiter missiles in Turkey JOHNSON
ADMINSTRATION Vietnam War: North --> Communist
-South non-communist led by Ngo Dinh Diem (relied on US help)
-hawk" vs. "dove" contingents took to constant, bitter debate over the war
-American destroyer was attacked in the Gulf of Tonkin by three North Vietnamese torpedo boats while conducting an intelligence mission --> Resolution by Congress. It permitted the president to conduct military operations in the region without a formal declaration of war and became the legal justification for escalating the conflict. Tet Offensive proved to be a military victory for US
January 27, 1974, a peace accord was signed in Paris ending the conflict signed the Outer Space Treaty with Soviet Premier Aleksei Kosygin --> banned nuclear weapons in earth orbit, on the moon or other planets NIXON
ADMINSTRATION -Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty of 1972 (SALT I): the U.S. and the Soviet Union agreed to stop making nuclear ballistic missiles and to reduce the number of antiballistic missiles to 200
-Berlin Agreement of 1972: ease travel restrictions between East and West Berlin -Environmental Protection Agency, and later oversaw passage of the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Mammal Marine Protection Act.
-Signed Title IX in 1972, preventing gender bias at colleges and universities receiving federal aid, opening the door for women in collegiate sports -ended the policy of forced assimilation of American Indians, returned sacred lands, and became the first American President to give them the right to tribal self-determination
-Nixon and his National Security Adviser, Henry Kissinger, go to China a peace meeting with Chairman Mao Zedong -China also welcomed opening lines of communication with the U.S. in order to develop an ally against the Soviet Union
-Did the same trip to Soviet to ease tensions -Started the era called “Détente” àrelaxation of tensions between governments
-Helped soviet with food shortage American culture adopted hippie innovations, including environmentalism, organic health food, and a relaxed society. (7)
Hippie movement endorsed rock music, drugs, mystic religions, sexual freedom, and opposed violence. (8)
Woodstock Festival Martian Luther King, Jr.
-One of the most influential and well know leaders of the Civil Rights Movement (7)
-President of the SCLC (7) -followers organized rallies, marches, and strikes (7) -"I Have A Dream" speech (7) Mapp v. Ohio (1961) Mapp then appealed her conviction basing her claim on the First Amendment grounds saying that she had a right to possess the materials.
This is called the exclusionary rule.
This case set the rule that evidence obtained by searches and seizures in violation of the United States Constitution is inadmissible in a criminal trial in a state court. Dollree Mapp’s home was forcefully entered by the police, despite her protests because they believed a bombing suspect was hiding in her home.
When she asked the police to see their search warrant, they waved a piece of paper at her claiming that it was a search warrant; it was not. In their search the police did not find the suspect they were looking for but they did find sexually explicit books and photographs.
Because of this, Mapp was charged with violating the Ohio state law prohibiting “lewd, lascivious, or obscene material”.
She was convicted and sentenced to one to seven years in prison. Mapp then appealed her conviction basing her claim on the First Amendment grounds saying that she had a right to possess the materials. However, once the case reached the Supreme Court it threw her conviction out not on the grounds of the First Amendment, but saying that it was in violation of the Fourth Amendment because the evidence should have never been used against her since it was seized without a warrant. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_landmark_court_decisions_in_the_United_States
http://billofrightsinstitute.org/resources/educator-resources/lessons-plans/landmark-cases-and-the-constitution/mapp-v-ohio-1961/ Engel v. Vitale
(1962) Some read, “Almighty God, we acknowledge our dependence upon Thee, and beg Thy blessings upon us, our teachers, and our country.”
By providing the prayer, New York officially approved religion.
It ruled that government-directed prayer in public schools, even if it is denominationally neutral and non-mandatory, violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. This decision is still unpopular with many Americans today. This was the first in a series of cases in which the Court used the establishment clause to eliminate religious activities that had traditionally been a part of public ceremonies. This case began because the Board of Regents for the State of New York authorized a voluntary prayer for recitation at the start of each school day in an attempt to defuse the political issue by taking it out of the hands of local communities. http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1961/1961_468/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_landmark_court_decisions_in_the_United_States Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) This case led to allowing for any accused individual to have the right to an attorney because from then on the Court interpreted the amendment as requiring the state to provide defense attorneys in capital trials. The Supreme Court then made a unanimous decision ruling that Gideon’s conviction was, in fact, unconstitutional. The Florida Supreme Court denied his petition, so Gideon appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court who reviewed his case in 1963. After being sentenced to five years in prison, Gideon filed a habeas corpus petition (petition for release from unjust imprisonment) to the Florida Supreme Court out of unconstitutional conviction because he lacked a defense attorney at trial. It ruled that the Sixth Amendment gives defendants the right to counsel in crime trials where the defendant is charged with a serious offense even if they cannot afford one themselves. In this case, Gideon, a man who could not afford his own lawyer, requested to have an attorney appointed to him but was told by the judge that in Florida attorneys were only appointed to defendants charged with crimes that might result in the death penalty if found guilty. http://americanhistory.about.com/od/civilrights/a/civilrights1.htm
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_gideon.html Escobedo v. Illinois
(1964) This case began when Danny Escobedo was arrested and taken to the police station in Illinois for questioning. Escobedo had not been adequately informed of his constitutional right to remain silent rather than to be forced to incriminate himself. This case held that all criminal suspects have the right to representation by an attorney during interrogation from the Sixth Amendment. During the hours of questioning the police refused his repeated requests to see his lawyer, as his lawyer sought unsuccessfully to consult with his client. Subsequently, Escobedo confessed to murder.
It was in this case that a Judge first spoke of “an absolute right to remain silent.” http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1963/1963_615 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_landmark_court_decisions_in_the_United_States It also set that an interrogation must stop if the suspect states he or she wishes to remain silent. Phoenix resident Ernesto Miranda was arrested in 1963 charged with rape, kidnapping, and robbery. Miranda was not informed of his rights before the police interrogation, and during the interrogation allegedly confessed to committing the crimes. Miranda had no counsel present, had not finished ninth grade, and had a history of mental instability. At the trial, the prosecution’s case consisted only of Miranda’s confession.
Miranda was then convicted of both rape and kidnapping and sentenced to 20 to 30 years in prison. He appealed to the Arizona Supreme Court, claiming that the police had unconstitutionally received his confession, but the court disagreed. Miranda then appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which reviewed the case in 1966. They ruled that the prosecution could not use Miranda’s confession as evidence in a criminal trial because the police had failed to inform Miranda of his right to an attorney and against self-incrimination. Under the Fifth Amendment a criminal suspect has the right to refuse “to be a witness against himself” and under the Sixth Amendment a criminal defendant is guaranteed the right to an attorney. Because of this case, police must advise criminal suspects of their rights under the Constitution to remain silent, to consult with a lawyer and to have on appointed if the suspect is indigent. Loving v. Virginia
http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/loving-v-virginia-case-over-interracial-marriage The Lovings left Virginia to live in Washington, D.C. with relatives and when returning to visit family five years later were arrested for traveling together. The judge in the case stated that, “Almighty God created the races white, black, yellow, malay and red, and he placed them on separate continents.... The fact that he separated the races shows that he did not intend for the races to mix," and sentenced the Lovings to a year in prison which would be suspended if the couple agreed to leave the state for the following 25 years. The Court then ruled that laws that prohibit marriage between races (anti-miscegenation statutes) are unconstitutional. Mildred Loving then wrote to Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy for help.
The couple was then reffered to the ACLU which represented them in their Supreme Court case. The Lovings, an interracial couple, were married in Washington, D.C. in 1958 and then returned to their home state of Virginia where they were charged with unlawful cohabitation and jailed. Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1968/1968_21 It ruled that wearing armbands is a legitimate form of protest under the First Amendment even on school grounds. In Des Moines, a group of students held a meeting in the home of 16-year-old Christopher Eckhardt where they planned to show their support for a truce in the Vietnam War by wearing black armbands throughout the holiday season and fasting on December 16 and New Year’s Eve. The principals of their school learned the plan and on December 14 created a policy stating that nay student wearing an armband would be asked to remove it and refusing to do so would result in suspension. On December 16, two students wore their armbands to school and were sent home.
The next day, John Tinker wore his and was sent home as well. The students, with their parents, sued the school district for violating the students’ right of expression and sought an injunction to prevent the school district from disciplining the students. The students did not return to the school until after New Year’s Day, the planned end of the protest. The district court dismissed the case, but the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit affirmed the decision. ·He ordered his attorney general to submit friends of the court briefs on behalf of civil rights litigants.
·He appointed African Americans to positions within his administration, named Thurgood Marshall to the
Second Circuit Court of Appeals in New York, and supported voter registration drives --> caused problems
·Battle for equality Cummingham, Daniel. "The '60s - Full of Hope and Despair in U.S. Domestic Policy." Suit101. Suit101, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://suite101.com/article/the-60s---full-of-hope-and-dispair-in-domestic-policy-a229815>."Domestic Politics in the 1960s." SparkNotes. Sparknotes, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/history/chapter20section1.rhtml>."Foreign policy of the John F. Kennedy administration." Wikipedia. N.p.: n.p., 2013. N. pag. Print. "Lyndon Baines Johnson Front Page." Miller Center. University of Virginia, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://millercenter.org/president/lbjohnson/essays/biography/5>. "Nixon’s Foreign Policy." US Department of State Office of the Historian. US Department of State, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/short-history/nixon-foreignpolicy>."Richard Milhous Nixon Front Page." Miller Center University of Virginia. University of Virginia, n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://millercenter.org/president/nixon/essays/biography/5>. Miranda v. Arizona