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Genetics: Protein Synthesis

Central Dogma; Proteins; Amino Acids;
by

Jerome Burgess

on 29 March 2011

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Transcript of Genetics: Protein Synthesis

CENTRAL DOGMA SEQUENCE.SHAPE.FUNCTION. DNA stores genetic information in living systems
fundamental structural unit of DNA is the nucleotide
nucleotides include the bases (A,T,C,G) and alternating sequence of pohosphate and sugar
DNA is double stranded and forms a twisted staircase known as a double helix RNA Proteins Proteins are :
very large molecules consisting of
long chains of smaller units known as amino acids.
means "primary importance" because of the many essential functions of proteins in cells Within our bodies and those of other living organisms, proteins serve many functions.
They digest foods and turn them into energy
they move molecules about within our cells
they let some substances pass through cell membranes while keeping others out
they turn light into chemical energy, making both vision and photosynthesis possible
they allow cells to detect and react to hormones and toxins in their surroundings
and they protect our bodies against foreign invaders.
Protein Synthesis:
How DNA makes RNA and
how that makes protein Transcription: Changing info systems Transcription is the transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA. Steps involved in transcription
RNA recognizes a specific base sequence in the DNA called a promoter and binds to it. *The promoter identifies the start of a gene, which strand is to be copied.

An enzyme unwinds the DNA.

RNA assembles bases that are complimentary to the DNA strand being copied. RNA contains U instead of T.

A termination code in the DNA indicates where transcription will stop.

The mRNA produced is called a mRNA transcript. The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane. After the mature mRNA transcript is produced, it moves out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm through pores in the nuclear membrane.

Leaving the Nucleus:
Bye Bye mRNA Translation:
From one Language to another Translation is the process where ribosomes synthesize proteins using the mature mRNA transcript produced during transcription.
http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP1302 Translation Details Translation follows transcription; the production of a molecule of single-stranded ribonucleic acid called messenger RNA (mRNA) from the DNA template. This molecule is transferred from the nucleus to the ribosomes, which are the site of the protein synthesis that occurs during translation.

After the mRNA has been transported to the ribosomes, it is fed into the ribosomal translation machineries.
Ribosomes begins to read the mRNA sequence from the end to the end.
**To convert the mRNA into protein, tRNA is used to read the mRNA sequence, 3 nucleotides at a time.

**Amino acids are represented by codons, which are 3-nucleotide RNA sequences.
The mRNA sequence is matched three nucleotides at a time to a complementary set of three nucleotides in the anticodon region of the tRNA molecule. Opposite the anticodon region of each tRNA, an amino acid is attached and as the mRNA is read off, the amino acids on each tRNA are joined together through peptide bonds. Steps of Translation Review of Protein Synthesis
Full transcript