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Transcript of Hofstede Dimensions
Individualism versus Collectivism
Masculinity versus Femininity
Uncertainty Avoidance Background Professor and researcher Geert Hofstede conducted an extensive research on how values in the workplace differ between cultures. Hofstede analyzed data based on employees values collected by IBM between the years 1967 and 1973 which covered more than 70 countries, and used only the 40 largest, which then extended to 50 countries and 3 regions. Societies that exhibit high power accept a hierarchical order where everyone has a place and needs no justification.
On the other hand, societies with low power distance, strive to equalize power, and demand justification. The collectivism dimension is the opposite, society has a closer likeness, where individuals can expect their families or members of a particular group, to look after them in correspondence with unquestionable loyalty. This dimension expresses the extent in which people within a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity. Uncertainty avoidance In the masculinity dimension, society is prone to be more competitive. This dimension represents a preference for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material reward for success. The feminine side of this dimension, has a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Countries exhibiting strong uncertainty avoidance maintain strict codes of belief and behavior, and they are intolerant of different behavior and ideas. Societies with weak uncertainty avoidance maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles. This dimension can be interpreted as society's search for virtue. Long-term Vs. short-term orientation Societies with short-term orientation tend to have a strong concern with building the absolute truth. They also display great respect for traditions, are inclined to save the future, and focus on achieving great results. Societies with long-term orientation, believe that truth depends on the situation, time and context. They display an ability to adapt to different traditions. This dimension was added in 1991 based on research by Michael Bond Indulgence Vs. Restraint Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms. Organizational Culture can be defined as "the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one organization from others" Organizational Structure