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The History of Marine Biology

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on 1 October 2013

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Transcript of The History of Marine Biology

The History of Marine Biology
384-322 BC
Described many forms of marine life that are still valid
First to recognized that gills are breathing apparatus for fish
Discovered that cetaceans; whales, dolphins and porpoises, are mammals
Discovered that there are two types of marine vertebrates: oviparous which produce eggs that hatch outside the body, or viviparous which produce eggs that hatch within the body
James Cook:
First to make and record detailed observations about marine life
Mapped a lot of the worlds uncharted areas, reshaping and expanding the known world for the europeans
First to use the chronometer
gave him the ability to correctly calculate and record longitude.
During his voyages he also discovered many plants and animals that were unknown to the world before.
Charles Darwin:
Sailed on the HMS Beagle making detailed observations of all aspects of natural world while mapping coastlines
led him to his theory of evolution by natural selection.
Explained the formation of distinctive rings of coral reef called atolls
Used nets to capture plankton (for scientific study) in addition to studying barnacles along with other things - scientists still continue to refer to his treatise
Ancient pacific islanders were sailing around Mediterranean sea, Red Sea, Eastern Atlantic Ocean, Black Sea, and the Indian Ocean, discovering and learning new things about marine life
2000 B.C.
Edward Forbes:
Extensively studied the ocean floor
Discovered many previously unknown species
Discovered seafloor life = different at different depths
Inspired new interest in the life of the sea floor
Challenger Expedition
Led by Charles Wyville Thompson
Set off in December 1872
Researched 68 thousand nautical miles
Brought back more information about the ocean than had been recorded in previous human history
Brought back samples of thousand of previously unknown species
Information Collected filled a 50-volume report that took about 23 years to complete
Hannah Downing

During WWII:
Sonar was developed due to the growing importance of submarine warfare in WW2
based on the detection of underwater echoes - way of listening to the sea
Basic technology in scuba was developed in France by engineer Emile Gagnan to allow automobiles to run on compressed natural gas
1300 - 1600
By the 1300s, Persian divers made rudimentary eye goggles, from very thinly sliced and polished shells of tortoises
In the 1600s divers would use wooden barrels as primitive diving bells, and were able to travel underwater with more then just one breath, but not by much.
John Smeaton invented an air pump, that had a tube that was connected to the diving barrel. This allowed air to be pumped to the diver
French Inventor, Sieur Freminet created a rebreathing device. This device recycled exhaled air, inside the barrel, making it the first self-contained air device. Device was poor since there wasn't an extra supply of oxygen available for the diver to breath in.
William James, an English inventor, designed another kind of self-containing breathing device. His design was a cylinder iron "belt" that was attached to a copper helmet. This device could hold 450 psi of air, which was enough to last 7 minutes.
Stazione Zoologica in Naples, Italy was the first marine laboratory that allowed marine biologists to keep organisms alive and work over long periods of time and was created in 1872 by german biologists
William Bourne designed the first submarine, that looked like a completely enclosed boat that could submerge and rowed underwater. Design consisted of wooden frame work held together by waterproof leather. This design however never made it off the drawing table.
David Bushnell created and made a submarine turbo boat that submerged underwater by allowing water into the hull and surfaced above water by pumping the water out with a hand pump.
The Glomar Challenger Expedition proved the plate tectonics theory by developing the technology for deep-sea drilling. These Samples provided organisms and data to confirm the theory of continental drift and plate tectonics.
‘The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom’ (MBA) was established during a meeting at the Royal Society on March 31st.
The Aigrette, built by the French, was the first submarine that used a diesel engine while above the surface, and an electric one below.
The F-class Skipjack was built by the United states. This submarine also functioned by using a diesel engine above the water, and below it used an electric engine.
The United States granted the authority to build the first nuclear-powered submarine. This Submarine is called the USS Nautilus
Today off the shore of Key Largo, Florida, the underwater Marine Biology Lab Aquarius sits under about 60 feet of water. This lab allows scientists to live and work underwater 24 hours a day during missions. It also allows the scientist to study and observe things that would be more difficult to do by diving from the surface.
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