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CYCLING

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Nandini Shaw

on 9 March 2015

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Transcript of CYCLING

Fitness Components Required
Different sports or exercises require different fitness components to be present in order for the activity to be properly played. The fitness components also contribute to how well that certain exercise or sport can be played. These fitness components are: Muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, speed, strength, flexibility, power, coordination, agility, balance and accuracy.

Cycling also requires some major fitness components.
Muscles

To create movement, muscles contract and expand. Skeletal muscles generally work in pairs, with one group of muscle contracting and one group of muscle expanding to create movement.



Muscles at Work


The hamstrings are three muscles which run along the back of the thigh and the quadriceps are the four muscles at the front of the thigh. Together they attach the hip to the knee and are mainly responsible for bending and extending the knee to bring the foot towards and away from the buttocks.
Energy Systems
Bibliography
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RIDE SAFELY!
CYCLING
Fundamentals, Advantages and How to Improve
Muscles are layers of muscle tissue which are attached to different parts of the body. They control posture, locomotion and movement of internal organs. There are three different types of muscles: skeletal, smooth and cardiac. Skeletal muscles control conscience movements, such as moving fingers, feet, smiling etc. Cardiac muscles exist only in the heart and are responsible for heart movement. Lastly, smooth muscles are in charge of movement in hollow organs, stomach, intestines, arteries and others.

Cardiac and skeletal muscles are predominantly used during cycling. The skeletal muscles are used to move the pedals of the bike and the cardiac muscles to pump blood around the body to enable movement.
Different muscles in the legs, feet and buttocks are used at different times during the pedal stroke.
THIGH MUSCLES
THE DIFFERENT MUSCLES AT WORK
BUTTOCKS
The Gluteals, or the buttocks, are an important group of muscle for rotating the hip and therefore moving the thigh.
CALF
The calf muscles are two muscles at the back of the lower leg, connecting the knee and the heel together. Together, the calf muscles are responsible for lifting the heel and bending the knee, to create forward movement.
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
The tibialis anterior is the muscle that runs at the front of the lower leg, connecting the heel to the shin and then to the toes. The muscles primary responsibility is to lift the toes up and therefore the foot as well.
hamstrings
0-90 degrees
Pedal pushed down to midway
PEDAL AT TOP
PEDAL PUSHING DOWN
90-180 degrees
Pedal pushed down to bottom
PEDAL AT BOTTOM
PEDAL PULLING UP
180-270 degrees
Pedal pulling up to midway
270-360 degrees
Pedal pulled up to top
Quadriceps expand
and hamstrings contract to pull knee up

Calf muscles contract
and tibialis anterior
expands to pull foot up
Quadriceps start to contract
hamstrings start to expand
to push knee down
Calf muscles start to expand to push foot down
Gluteals start to contract to rotate hip
Quadriceps contract and hamstrings relax to resume straight leg position
calf muscles expand
tibialis anterior contracts to pull foot up
Gluteals contract to straighten hip
Quadriceps start to expand
and hamstrings start to contract to pull knee up

Calf muscles start to contract
and tibialis anterior
starts to contract to pull foot up
Gluteals
For Leisure and Recreation
Cycling not only works out your legs and buttocks, it strengthens and tones your core, abs, arms and your lower back.

Cycling releases endorphins (hormones that make your happy), improves your sleep, keeps your immunity up, reduces stress and depression and research has shown that it also improves brain power.

It increases cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and flexibility, as well as preventing major health problems.
It is an excellent weight loss activity, that has a lower negative impact on your body than other exercises (it is not as damaging to the musculoskeletal system)
Cycling is fun, it’s easy to learn, you can socialise while cycling and it is easily integrated into your timetable.
Benefits of Cycling
FITNESS COMPONENTS IN CYCLING
The body uses protein, fats and carbohydrates to create energy and fuel itself. There are three different ways that the body creates energy for muscle contraction. Two of the ways are anaerobic (does not use oxygen) and one of them is aerobic (uses oxygen).

This system is the long term system that enables us to endure through longer periods of exercise. It uses oxygen as the catalyst to breakdown carbohydrate, fat and the protein. This is why it is the system is for endurance exercises.

The Aerobic System
ATP-CP System
This system uses ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and CP (Creatine Phosphate) as the fuel, but does not use oxygen to break it down. This means that it can only be used for short bursts of activity, such as sprinting, which last for 1-20 seconds.
The Glycolysis system
Once the ATP-CP store is used up, the body will use glycogen to fuel energy. However, the use of this system also leads to lactate building up in the muscles and causing them to fatigue. It can be used for a few minutes before the body can not produce more.
40m sprint
4 km run
400 m race
ENERGY SYSTEMS USED IN CYCLING
During leisure cycling, a mix of energy systems are used, however it is mostly the aerobic system that is working. When first starting on the bike, the ATP-CP system will give a short burst of speed to get the bike going. Then, the aerobic system will kick in, and cycling will continue at a steady rate. If there are short hills, the Lactic system will start, and when sprinting, the ATP-CP system will contribute to the energy process. The variations of energy systems used are therefore dependent on the conditions of the leisure ride.
TRAINING AND IMPROVING
BUILDING UP A CYCLING BODY
An important step towards improvement in cycling is understanding that the buttocks should be activated more during rides than the quads. This also means that ‘better’ cyclists use their hips as a primary joint of power rather than their knees.
For superior results, training exercises should concentrate on working the buttocks and hamstrings. Training should also work on the core, lower back as well as the calf and quadriceps. Exercises that stress on different muscles at the same time are favourable.

It should be noted that combined with these exercises, regular cycling is an excellent way to build up cardiovascular and muscular endurance. There are a variety of exercises, and it is recommended that you change them around and mix them up every time, in order to achieve maximum results. These exercises should be done every 2-3 days, however at least 30-60 minutes of cycling for at least five times a week should be done.

By Doing Training Exercises
TRAINING EXERCISES

Glute-Ham raise
Works: Your Glutes, Hamstrings and core
Lie on your stomach on the floor, with your body straight and your legs together. Ask a partner to to push down on your heels. Contract your hamstrings and raise your upper body up, hinging on your knees. Rise till your upper body is straight. Lower your body down again and repeat.


Ball Plank
Works: Back, Abs, Shoulders, Core
Lie on the floor with your stomach on the ground. Place a fitness ball under your the bottom half of your legs. Push your body up with your arms, so you are planking except with a ball under your legs. Then, move your buttocks up into the air, creating a triangle, with your buttocks at the top vertex. Then push your legs back and resume the straight position of your body. Repeat.

Ball leg raise
Works: Hips, Glutes, Hamstring, Core
Lie on your back on the floor. Place a ball under your calves. Slowly raise one of your legs until it is perpendicular with the rest of your body. Repeat with other leg.

Single Leg Deadlift
Works: Glutes, Hamstrings, Core
Stand with your feet a little apart and a dumbball in your hand. Slowly push one foot back, with your toe dragging lightly along the floor. Lower your back and arms as your foot goes up, so that your raised foot, back, and neck are in a straight line and the leg on the ground and your arms are parallel.
Hip-Lift Progression
Works: Hips, Glutes and Core
Lie on the ground on your back. Bend one leg so it is at 45 degrees, with the foot still on the floor. Raise the other leg in a straight line so both your thighs are in line. Then, lift your bum off the ground and hold for 15 seconds. Repeat for other leg.
Step ups
Works: Quads, Hamstrings, Glutes
Hold two weights in your hands, stand straight with feet a little apart. Then, step up on a slightly raised platform, with one foot on the platform, and one foot hanging off. Then, bend your knee of the leg that is on the platform for a few times. Repeat for other foot.
Quadriceps workouts
Speed Lunges
Works: Quads
Stand with your feet slightly apart. Then, put one foot forward and bend both your knees, sinking into a lunge position. Quickly swap feet by jumping up and sitting back down on the opposite foot.
Calf workouts
Single leg box jumps
Works: Calves
Stand in front of a slightly raised platform. Bend one foot back, bend your back slightly and raise one arm up. Then, jump up on the platform, pushing off with your leg, and jumping back on with your other one. Swap arms while doing this. Repeat, for other leg
Dumbbell jump squats
Works: calves
Stand with a dumbbell in each hand and feet shoulder length apart. Then, squat down, using your hips as the primary joint, when you hav reached the right position, your thighs should be parallel to the ground. Then, jump up, with your body straight. Repeat.
Exercises that work the Glutes, Hips, Hamstrings, and Core
The best training method is when these body strengthening exercises are combined with a daily cycling routine. Cycling should vary every day, there should be different road conditions, different distances and times everyday (though all rides should be at least 45 minutes). Mix up the training program so there is variety in every day and week, in order for best results.


The cardiac muscles, or the heart, are responsible processing and delivering oxygen around the body and therefore making movement and exercise possible. When exercising, the cardiac muscles work extra hard to distribute more oxygen to the muscles being used.
CARDIAC MUSCLES
System during different types of cycling
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