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Chapter 15 - Zinn's Self-help in Hard Times

PuLSe Honors - US History

Allen Huang

on 5 March 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 15 - Zinn's Self-help in Hard Times

By Howard Zinn
Presented by PuLSe Honors of 4th Period USH
03.04,13. THESIS WAR VETERANS WESLEY EVEREST ENDING OF IWW During the Great Depression, the average American was in dire need of support from the government. With the economic downfall caused by the Great Depression many were facing poverty and hunger. Yet, the government failed the people. With the addition of the destruction of the socialist party, the Great Depression brought about a rebirth that was inspired by the average American's desire for change. Americans took matters into their own hands and satisfied the cries for assistance through self-help, direct action (ie. unionization, strikes/general strikes), and through any and all means of survival in such difficult times. 4.5 million people participated in World War I. (18 months). The average person served a year. Half of them went overseas for an average of 5 and a half months. 1.1 million saw combat and 204,000 were wounded. Congress paid veterans $1.25 each day served overseas and $1.00 each day in the U.S. However, the payment would not be made until 1945. As a result, there were many homeless. 1904 8 men had began to plan a new pathway for the labor movement secretly.
- Issac Cowen
- Clarence Smith
- Thomas J. Hagerty
- George Estes
- W.L Hall
- Charles O Sherman
- Wm. E. Trautmann
- Eugene V. Debs
They had planned something for the new era of solidarity and strength for the working class.
The ONLY hope for the working class is to make a NEW Labor Organization.
They had sent out invitation to 36 people in Chicago to attend to a secret meeting. and it said...
"Asserting our confidence in the ability of the working class, if correctly organized on both political and industrial lines, to take possession of and operate successfully the industries of the country . . .
We invite you to meet us at Chicago, Monday, January 2, 1905, in secret conference to discuss way and means of uniting the working people of America on correct revolutionary principles, regardless of any labor organization of the past or present, and only restricted by such basic principles as will insure its integrity as a real protector of the interests of the working class." CALVIN COOLIDGE Chapter 15 - Self-help in Hard Times STOCK MARKET CRASH OF 1929 THE GREAT DEPRESSION SF GENERAL STRIKE OF 1934 AUNT MOLLY JACKSON'S STORY Wesley Everest was a member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and a veteran of World War I. He was known for his death (unfortunately). Shots were fired between the Legion (a "patriotic" group) and the IWW. It was unknown who fired first. Everest had a rifle in his hand and ran for the woods with a mob of people following him. He tried to cross the river but the current was too strong so he turned around and shot the man behind him. He tried to fight the mob of people behind him and was sent to jail. That night, he was dragged out of his house and his genitals were cut off. People hung him on a bridge and and shot his dead body. Early 1929, many people were trying to get into the stock market. Even the banks put their customers money in the stock market.

Everyone thought everything was going well but there were mini crashes. Prices began to drop and some margin calls were issued.
Banks tried to ignore it since they kept letting people borrow money,
But on October 24, 1929, also known as Black Thursday, the stock prices decreased dramatically. Many people stopped investing their money but a group of bankers put their own money back into the stock market which influenced the rest of the people to continue investing.
On October 29,1929, also known as Black Tuesday, the stock prices collapsed. It's known as the worst day in stock market history. What is the stock market? The stock market is a place where people can invest their money on companies. People in the 1920's invested their money all the time since the trend in the market was that it always went up, They truly believe that the stock market was a place where they could become rich. People could buy "on margin" instead of stocks since they only have to pay 10-20% of their own money and borrowing the rest from a broker. If the stock decreased, they would issue a "margin call" , which means that the buyers have to pay the loans back immediately. Calvin Coolidge was the vice president during Harding’s Presidency. Coolidge, known for his simple, quiet, hard manner, finished Harding’s term when Harding died unexpectedly. The following election in 1924, Coolidge won easily from the favor of the Republic party. Coolidge focused on restoring the government security that was lost during Harding’s term. He believed that the government should be least involved with industry and business. Coolidge helped the nation to expand in prosperity. The Great Depression was the era after the stock market crash of 1929. The main things that led up to the Great Depression was easy credit, the loss of export sales, and overproduction of products. Life during the Great Depression was extremely difficult; people lost jobs and homes, and the majority of people were starving. People blamed the president Hoover, but the root cause did not lie there. President Hoover tried to help the economy, but failed because Hoover put money in businesses. May 9,1934, Longshoremen were against the west coast ship owners Movement of 35,000 maritime workers (ILA) Resulted in the shut down of 2,000miles of pacific coastline from Bellingham, to San Diego Workers refused to place these issues in the hands of government. With their own hiring hall, the Dockers felt they could achieve equal hours of work and control over the pace of work, which would mean fewer injuries and deaths.Workers also demanded a six-hour day, a thirty-hour week, and $1 an hour in wages with overtime at $1.50.Bloody Thursday:On July 5, the employers’ Industrial Association ordered strikebreakers to move cargo-laden trucks and railroad cars from the docks to some of the warehouses. One thousand police armed with tear gas, specially made vomiting gas, revolvers and riot shotguns protected the strikebreakers. Workers responded by organizing about 2,000 pickets to stop the trucks. ACTIVITY!! "... she walked into the local store, asked for a 24-pound sack of flour, gave it to her little boy to take it outside, then filled a sack of sugar and said to the storekeeper, "Well, I'll see you in ninety days. I have to feed some children... I'll pay you, don't worry." And when he objected she pulled out her pistol and said: "Martin if you try to take this grub away from me, God knows that if they electrocute me for it tomorrow, I'll shoot you six times in a minute."" (384)
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