Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

CRISIS & ABSOLUTISM in EUROPE

No description
by

Sarah Ward

on 1 March 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of CRISIS & ABSOLUTISM in EUROPE

CRISIS & ABSOLUTISM in EUROPE
1550 - 1715

SPAIN'S CONFLICTS
Militant Catholicism
FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION
Huguenots
SPAIN'S CONFLICTS
Protestantism in England
The Edict of Nantes
The Seven Years' War
EUROPE – all lands returned except Prussia controls Silesia
INDIA – French withdraw & British control India
NORTH AMERICA – Canada: French -> British
Florida: Spanish -> British
Louisiana: French -> Spanish
* Britain = world’s greatest colonial power

War of Alliances
Original rivalry:
France V Austria
Diplomatic Revolution of 1756:
France, Austria, Russia V England, Prussia

1756-1763
aka The Great War for Empire
aka The French & Indian War

Resistance from the Netherlands
QUEEN ELIZABETH I
Elizabeth Tudor (1533-1603)
the long-ruling queen of England, governing with relative stability and prosperity for 44 years (1558-1603. The Elizabethan era is named for her.
The Spanish Armada
King Philip II of Spain
VS
Queen Elizabeth I of England
Defeat of the Spanish:
guaranteed that England would remain a Protestant country
Signaled a gradual shift in power from Spain to England & France
What did King Philip II hope to accomplish by invading England?
Act of Supremacy:
Queen = "only supreme governor" of church & state
Foreign Policy:
balance of powers between Spain & France
During the 16th & 17th centuries, conflicts between PROTESTANTS and CATHOLICS in many European nations resulted in wars for religious and political control.
King Philip II "the Most Catholic king"
ruler of Spain, Milan, Naples, Sicily, & the Netherlands (reigned 1556-1598)
son of Charles V - Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain, & Archduke of Austria
brother of Ferdinand I - new Holy Roman Emperor
nation chosen by God to save Christianity from Protestant heretics
Spanish Netherlands ~ 17 provinces
attempts of control = resentment & opposition from nobles
attempt to crush Calvinism = violence & rebellion in 1566
1609 - truce ends war, golden age of Dutch Republic ensues


1562-1598
Henry IV & the Edict of Nantes
French Protestants influenced by John Calvin
40-50% of nobility = threat to the Crown
VS
the ultra-Catholics
loyalty of Northern France = resources for large armies
other factor in civil war:
peoples' willingness to help weaken growing power of the French monarchy
HENRY of NAVARRE
Huguenot political leader becomes Catholic king of France in 1594
EDICT OF NANTES, 1598
Catholicism as official religion
Huguenots granted right to worship & hold political office

which do you think is the most important?
THINK

PAIR
SHARE
ECONOMIC & SOCIAL CRISIS
REVOLUTIONS in ENGLAND
THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-1648)
THE RESTORATION & GLORIOUS REVOLUTION
1562-1598
THE WITCHCRAFT HYSTERIA
1560-1650
inflation
growing population:
demand for land & food
drove up prices for both
SPAIN failing by 1640s
too dependent on silver
loss of Muslim & Jewish artists



1500s population growth
1620 population levels
1650 population declines
warfare, plague, famine
social tensions & unrest
http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/channel/videos/the-hammer-of-witches/

16th & 17th centuries
40,000-100,000 charged w/ witchcraft
common people
75% women
dissipates by 1650:
- stronger govts unwilling to disrupt society
- changing attitudes ~ reason against old world view of evil spirits
MALLEUS MALEFICARUM
"The Hammer of Witches"
started over religious conflicts, sustained by political conflicts "the last of the religious wars"
Holy Roman Empire
Catholic Hapsburg emperors VS
Protestant nobles in Bohemia

Denmark, Sweden, France, & Spain
all major European powers except England involved in plundering Germany
PEACE OF WESTPHALIA, 1648
Holy Roman Empire ceases to exist
300+ independent states
European powers gain new territory
The Stuarts & Divine Right
Civil War & Commonwealth
King
VS
Parliament
KING JAMES I
Parliament disagrees w/ divine right
Puritans disagree w/ defense of the Church of England
KING CHARLES I
1628, Petition of Right
ritual in Church of England causes thousands to flee to America

1642
CAVALIERS (Royalists)
VS ROUNDHEADS (Parliamentary forces)
Oliver Cromwell
New Model Army of
"Rump Parliament"
executes Charles I in 1649
declares England a COMMONWEALTH
1660, KING CHARLES II
Monarchy restored
Parliament retains power

Charles II audaciously Catholic
Parliament passes TEST ACT:
- only Anglicans may hold military & civil offices
1685, KING JAMES II
appoints Catholics to high positions in military & govt
WILLIAM OF ORANGE
invited to invade England by nobles
James II concedes w/o bloodshed & flees to France
1689, King William III & Quen Mary II take the throne
BILL OF RIGHTS
&
limited, or Constitutional Monarchy
"Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live."
ABSOLUTISM
a government system in which a ruler holds total power
KING LOUIS XIV
CZAR PETER the GREAT
Russia (r. 1689-1725)
France, (r. 1643-1715)
Eastern Monarchs
imposed and collected permanent taxes without consent
maintained permanent armies
conducted relations with other states as they pleased
16th Century Russia
IVAN IV
aka Ivan the Terrible
1st ruler to take name of "CZAR"
expanded Russia eastward
crushed Russian boyars (nobility)
ruthless & mentally unstable
(1547-1598)
"Times of Trouble"
Romanov Dynasty
1613-1917
westernization
modernization
cultural domestic reforms
military & govt reforms
etiquette
dress
appearance
*1703, St. Petersburg*
created navy & reorganized the army
political provinces
"police state"
Think
Pair
Share
Which absolute monarch was most influential to the big picture of history?
Thirty Years' War
Prussia & Austria emerge as great European powers
PALACE OF VERSAILLES
Austria does not achieve absolutist state
Think
Pair
Share
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
A monarchy in which the powers of the ruler are restricted to those granted under the constitution and laws of the nation

Rights of Parliament:
Freedom from Royal interference with the law;
Freedom from taxation by Royal prerogative;
Freedom to petition the King;
Freedom to elect members of Parliament without interference from the Sovereign
BILL OF RIGHTS ACT, 1689
write a brief initial response on a piece of paper to be handed in
& Write
& Write
write a 2nd response based on whether your views changed following discussion with your peers
Crisis & Chaos of 17th Century
need for stability
increasing the power of the monarchy
Cardinal Richelieu & Cardinal Mazarin
ministers that strengthened the monarchy on behalf of boy kings
1661 - Louis XIV assumes supreme power
"THE SUN KING"
Govt & Religion
Economy & War
legacy
Capital of French govt 1682-1789
household of King
chief offices of the state
King's court

symbol of King's power
COMPLETE AUTHORITY
control of policy-making
control of nobility
RELIGIOUS HARMONY
subjugate/convert Huguenots
est. 200,000+ fled

*grandeur spending*
JEAN-BAPTISTE COLBERT
mercantilism


Standing Army
military glory
dominate Bourbon dynasty
4 wars (1667-1713)
expand territory
Bourbon on Spanish throne
DEBT
SURROUNDED BY ENEMIES
"Try to remain at peace with your neighbors. I loved war too much. Do not follow me in that or in over spending... Lighten your people's burden as soon as possible, and do what I have had the misfortune not to do myself."
large & efficient army
4th largest in Europe
FREDERICK WILLIAM the GREAT ELECTOR (r. 1640-1688)
KING FREDERICK WILLAM I (r. 1713-1740)
PRUSSIA
GENERAL WAR COMMISSARIAT
levy taxes & oversee
army bureaucratic machine
"the soldier king"
military reforms = Prussian strength & power
forced nobility to serve
frugal spending
(except for military)
inspectors
MANNERISM
BAROQUE
SHAKESPEARE
CERVANTES & VEGA
The Elizabethan Era
DRAMA
Theater
affordable for all social class
plays written to appeal to diverse audiences
keen insight into human psychology

commentaries on human condition
Miguel de Cervantes
DON QUIXOTE
Both visionary dreams & the hard work of reality are necessary to the human condition
Public Playhouses = spread of culture throughout Spanish Empire
Lope de Vega

witty, charming, action-packed, & realistic
please audiences & satisfy public demand
art aroused the emotions & literature spoke of the human condition
reflected the tensions of religious upheavals & spirituality of religious revival
Italy - 1520s
rejection of Renaissance principles

show suffering, emotions, & religious ecstasy
Italy - late 1500s
classical ideals of Renaissance
+ spiritual feelings of 16th cent. revival
search for POWER
EL GRECO
GIAN LORENZO BERNINI
CATHERINE the GREAT
Russia, (r. 1762-1796)
*20yrs - French GDP*
continued cultural westernization & territorial expansion

"enlightened ruler"
1767 - Legislative commission
presented her "Nakaz"
1785 - Charter to the Nobility
What form of government do you think best serves the needs of a country?

Natural State (no govt)
Absolutism
Constitutional Monarchy
Democracy
Other

What form best serves the needs of individual people?
Full transcript