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The State of Orphans and At-Risk Children in the World
Transcript of The State of Orphans and At-Risk Children in the World
• 69,000 children orphaned by AIDS (UNAIDS 2007)
• 16,000 children living on the street (MOLISA 2008)
• 14,600 children living in institutions (MOLISA 2008) There are 7 Billion people in this world
(Population Reference Bureau, 2012) Boys and Girls
<18 years of age 2.2 billion 32% There are 5.6 Billion people in developing countries 1.9 billion What do we know about these boys and girls? 153 million boys and girls (ages 0 - 17) have lost one or both parents - UNICEF, 2011. 2 times the number of ALL the boys and girls
ages 0 -1 7 in the U.S. Twice as many children around the world have lost fathers compared to mothers (5th Annual Rep. to Congress on PL109-95, 2012) Paternal orphans compared to maternal orphans live in households with significantly fewer household durables (Case et al., 2007). Almost 952,000 children under 18 had lost at least one parent to AIDS. (Ethiopia: Federal Ministry of Health and Federal HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office, 2010) Ethiopia's population is young * Population of 84.7 million people
* 56.7% < 19 years of age
* 15.4% < 5 years of age
(Ethiopia: Demographic Health Survey 2012) Haiti Single and double orphans are often a vulnerable group in developing countries. In particular, AIDS orphans are especially at risk for poor developmental and adjustment outcomes. Social orphans are children living out of parental care. Many face extreme hardship and share common life circumstances of physical danger and psychological pain (Dillon, 2008). * 640 million boys and girls lack adequate shelter
* 350 million boys and girls are disabled
* 493 million boys and girls experience sexual and
physical abuse at home
* 1 Billion children live in poverty - every second
child. Ethiopia Viet Nam Bulgaria Serbia * Population is about 9.7 million
* Approximately 50% is <20
* In 2010, there were an estimated 311,000
single or double orphans in Haiti • 70% of children born out of wedlock, 10% of births not declared
• 1/5 of children do not live with their parents (over 250,000 “restaveks”, or child slaves)
• 30% increase in children left at orphanages post-quake
• 2,000 children smuggled abroad by human traffickers (pre-earthquake) • Haiti has the lowest enrollment rate for primary education in the Western Hemisphere.
• 63% of the primary school age population are enrolled in school.
• Almost half of the primary school age population (1.3 million children) do not attend school.
• 22% of the secondary school age population are enrolled in school (McNulty, 2010). In Bulgaria, the Roma illiteracy rate is estimated to be between 8 -16% in contrast to 1.9% for the total population (UNESCO, 2011) .
Other estimates claim that only 46.2% of the Roma completed elementary and primary
schooling (grades 1 to 8) compared to 97% of the ethnic Bulgarians and 82% of the Turkish minority. * The population of Bulgaria is 7.5 Million
* 14% of the Bulgarian population is <15 years of age
* 800,000 of Roma descent. Roma children are much more likely to be enrolled in “special schools” designed for mentally handicapped children, or to be segregated into special classes within normal schools.
For instance, In Bulgaria, Roma students make up 33% of the enrollment in special schools (but only 8 to 10% of the overall school population (Tanaka, 2000). BARRIERS
* Incompatibility Between Traditional Teaching
Practices and Roma Learning Styles
* Quality of Teaching in Schools with Large
Numbers of Roma
* Low Teacher Expectations of Roma Students
* Lack of Competency in the Majority Language
by Roma Children
* Lack of Academic Foundation When Roma
Children Begin School
* Prejudice Against Roma Children
* Poverty Among Roma Families
* Perspective and Attitudes of Roma Parents
and Children Toward Public Schooling
* Roma children's Health Vietnam's population is 89,840,000 37% of all children in Vietnam live in poverty (Roelen, 2010). Recent evidence indicate that almost every child aged 6-10 was in school (97%). For 11-14 year-olds, 93% of children were attending school, and even among 15-17-year-olds 70% were still in school (UNICEF: Cameron, 2012). TAKE AWAY POINTS National net attendance in all primary schools is 64.5% (Ethiopia Ministry of Education: 2011) 182,200 children 0 - 14 have HIV National and world data should drive WWO's focus on mission-congruent programming and resource allocation. * At the end of 2011 - 2,278 children, or 98.2% of the children accommodated at the Homes for Medical and Social Care had one or two parents.
* Only 41 children were complete orphans, which is 1.8% of the total number of accommodated children at the end of the year (Bulgarian National Srtatstics Institute, 2012). * 2,319 children were accommodated in the homes and of them 1,278 of were boys and 1,041 were girls (Bulgarian National Statistics institute, 2012).
* 150 children are abandoned each month in Bulgaria and 1 in 50 children are in state care. National and world data should drive WWO's focus on mission-congruent programming and resource allocation. Individuals who possess, are exposed to, or reside in known risk factors for a sufficient period of time are said to be “at risk” for undesirable developmental outcomes. Risk factors are measurable characteristics or qualities of individuals, interpersonal relationships, contexts, and institutions. Institutional rearing has been associated with delays in physical, behavioral, cognitive, and socio-emotional development (Rutter & the ERA Study team, 1998) At-risk
youth But not all children who face risk are maladjusted. Some youth are resilient. Resilience is a pattern of behavior and functioning indicative of positive adaptation in the context of significant risk or adversity (Masten and Coatsworth,1998). Sometimes, boys and girls exposed to substantial or extreme adversities (e.g., lengthy institutional stays; physical trauma) develop normatively and even sometimes develop exceptionally. WWOA 4th-grade Fall 2012 grades 100% - Boys and girls at Des's Village had passing grade in every subject.
60% - the Ethiopian Ministry of Education 2013 target for orphans attaining a grade of 50 or higher in Mathematics, English, and Science. Our programming operates as a buffer against negative outcomes associated with the risk boys and girls face. Among a large cohort of mothers of children with and without cognitive delays in Vietnam, child disability was the strongest predictor of maternal stress (So-Youn Park, et. al., 2009). Maternal stress has been linked to child abandonment in Vietnam, (Cho, 2007; Haruzivishe, 2000) The net attendance at WWOA is 98.4% Key points
1. Children around the world continue to face tremendous risk in their daily lives.
2. Not all children who face risk have poor outcomes. Some are very resilient.
3. Many need interventions that promote resiliency.
4. Results from our programs show we are breaking the link between risk and poor outcomes for boys and girls we serve.
5. Our strategies to promote resiliency among at-risk youth are guided by data, research and best practice. In our FRC, we asked caregivers of HIV+ children who live in the community about their relationship with their children, 92% reported that the relationship was excellent or good. 40% of the youth in our community program reported being picked on or bullied by other children. Recent evidence indicated that HIV + youth who were bullied experienced a negative impact on disease progression due primarily to ART non-adherence and psychological trauma (Kamen et. al., 2013). However, our data indicate that 98% of the caregivers of HIV + youth report never missing a child's appointment with the physician. Evidence suggests that WWO programming buffers against negative effects associated with risk faced by youth we serve. Resiliency or protective factors are elements that buffer youth against the ill effects of risk. Subtopics1. International data2. What is risk and resiliency?3. Highlight country level and program data to examine risk and resiliency in the children we serve. Mothers who report positive relationships with their children are less likely to neglect, abuse and/or abandon them (UNICEF, 2010). RISK CAN BE INTERNAL (PERSONAL TRAITS AND CHARACTERISTICS) OR EXTERNAL (ENVIRONMENT, COMMUNITY, FAMILY)