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Byzantine Empire and Russia
Transcript of Byzantine Empire and Russia
• Geographic size: Difficulty of defense and administration
• Economy: The cost of defense, and devaluation of Roman currency
• Military: Army membership started to include non-Romans, resulting in
decline of discipline
• Moral decay: People’s loss of faith in Rome and the family
• Political problems: Civil conflict and weak administration
• Invasion: Attacks on borders
Division of the Roman Empire
• Legalized Christianity with the Edict of Milan
• Move of the capital by Constantine from Rome to Byzantium, renaming it
• Survival of the Western Roman Empire until 476 A.D. (C.E.), when it ceased
to have a Roman Emperor
• Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)
-Located on the Bosporus Strait
-Located on the crossroads of trade (Silk Road & Black Sea/Aegean Sea Trade Routes)
Constantine the Great
Why was Constantinople established as
the capital of the Eastern Roman
Location of Constantinople
• Protection of the eastern frontier
• Distance from Germanic invasions in the western empire
• Crossroads of trade
• Easily fortified site on a peninsula bordered by natural harbors
Byzantine Emperor Justinian
• Codification of Roman law (impact on European legal codes)
• Reconquest of former Roman territories
• Expansion of trade
Q: What was the influence of Justinian’s codification of Roman law on the Byzantine Empire and later legal codes?
A: As the first to codify Roman law,
Justinian provided the basis for the law
codes of Western Europe.
Q: What was Justinian’s influence on the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and its economy?
Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire reached its height in culture and prosperity.
Greek Orthodox Christianity and imperial patronage enabled the Byzantine Empire to develop a unique style of art and of architecture.
Byzantine achievements in art and architecture
• Inspiration provided by Christian religion and imperial power
• Icons (religious images)
• Mosaics in public and religious structures
• Hagia Sophia (a Byzantine domed church)
Greek and Roman traditions were preserved in the Byzantine Empire.
• Continued flourishing of Greco-Roman traditions
• Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in the West)
• Greek Orthodox Christianity
• Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries
The cultural and political differences between the Eastern and Western Roman Empires weakened the unity of the Christian Church and led to its division.
• 1st Church in Christendom
• Centered in Rome
• Farther from seat of power after Constantinople became capital
• Use of Latin language in the liturgy
• Pope (Bishop of Rome) rules emperors and kings
• Icons allowed
• No marriage for Priests
• Centered in Constantinople
• Eastern Orthodox
• Close to seat of power after Constantinople became capital
• Use of Greek language in the liturgy
• Patriarch (Bishop of Constantinople) takes orders from Emperor
• Icons eventually banned
• Marriage for Priests is OK
Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and Eastern European civilizations through its religion,culture, and trade.
Influence of Byzantine culture on Eastern Europe and Russia
• Trade routes between Black Sea and Baltic Sea
• Adoption of Orthodox Christianity by Russia and much of Eastern Europe
• Adoption of Greek alphabet for the Slavic languages by St. Cyril (Cyrillic alphabet)
• Church architecture and religious art
Corpus Juris Civilis
Edict of Milan
Black & Mediterranean
Using pages 285-287 in your book,
complete the following Venn diagram
Jesus as BOTH God and
son of God
Easter as main
Emperor has authority
over the Church
Greek as language of the liturgy
Belief in afterlife
Latin as language of liturgy
Christmas as main
Use of icons common
The Fall of Constantinople
-Sacked by Western Christian Crusaders 1204
-Ottoman Turks (1453)
Rurik the Rus (860)
St. Cyril (863)
Vladmir of Kiev (1015)
Pope Urban II:
Calls the 1st Crusade
Mongols invade Russia 1237
Ivan the Great
as official religion of
Colonizes the Slavs
So what becomes of Constantinople?
1) List 3 ways Constantinople preserved the heritage of the Western Roman Empire.
2) List 2 ways Constantinople influenced Russia?