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Bread

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by

Bridget Skelly

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of Bread

Today, we will be learning about bread products!!
Quick Breads
Objectives
Compare quick breads to yeast breads
Identify the functions of ingredients in baked products
Prepare quick breads and yeast breads
There are two basic types of bread
Yeast Breads
Quick Breads are breads that can be prepared in a short amount of time (quickly!)
Quick Bread Examples
Biscuits
Muffins
Cream puffs
Pancakes
Waffles
Coffee Cake
Quick breads can be made from batters or dough. Both batter and dough are mixtures of FLOUR and LIQUID
Quick Bread Ingredients
Flour
Leavening Agents
Liquids
Fat
Eggs
Sugar
Salt
Let's look at the function of each ingredient in bread:)
Flour
Liquids
Fat
Eggs
Sugar
Salt
We have already made THREE quick breads in this class... what are they???
We have already made PANCAKES, MUFFINS, and SCONES!
Flour gives structure to baked products!
Leavening Agents
Baking powder and baking soda are leavening agents. They make baked products rise and become porous.
Water and milk are liquids commonly used in baked products
Liquids hydrate the protein and starch in flour. Liquids also moisten or dissolve baking powder, salt and sugar.
Fats serve as a tenderizing agent. The fat coats the flour and causes the dough structure to separate into layers!
Eggs help incorporate air into baked products. They also add color and flavor and contribute to structure!
Sugar gives sweetness to baked products, has a tenderizing effect and helps crusts brown.
Salt adds flavor and regulates the action of yeast. If yeast bread contains no salt, the dough will be difficult to handle, and the bread will have a poor appearance
Now let's take a quick look at the food science behind quick breads!
Food Science Principles of Quick Breads
The proteins gliadin and gluetnin are found in flour.
When you combine flour with liquid and stir, the glutenin and gliadin form gluten!
GLUTEN gives strength and elasticity to batters and doughs and structure to baked products. It also holds the leavening gases which are what make quick breads rise!
You can think of gluten like a piece of gum...
When you first start chewing it, it is soft and easy to chew.
As you chew the gum, it becomes more elastic and you can blow bubbles
But as you chew it for a long time, it becomes so elastic that it makes your jaws hurt!
Gluten behaves similarly. If you mix your batter too much, the gluten will overdevelop and the bread will be compact and tough:(
To keep quick breads light and tender, mix them for only a short time!
Now let's talk about YEAST breads! We will be preparing several yeast bread products over the next few weeks!Quick Bread Ingredients

Flour
Leavening Agents
Liquids
Fat
Eggs
Sugar
Salt

Flour

Liquids

Fat

Eggs

Sugar

Salt

Leavening AgentsQuick Bread Ingredients

Flour
Leavening Agents
Liquids
Fat
Eggs
Sugar
Salt

Flour

Liquids

Fat

Eggs

Sugar

Salt

Leavening Agents
Yeast breads are different from quick breads because they contain YEAST and they take longer to make!
Yeast breads can be made by hand or with a bread machine. We will make ours by hand!
Yeast Bread Ingredients
Flour
Liquid
Salt
Yeast
Sugar
Fat
Eggs

Flour
Liquid
Salt
Yeast
Sugar
Fat
Eggs
Let's look at each of the ingredients in YEAST breads!
When mixed with liquid and kneaded, flour develops gluten to support the carbon dioxide produced by yeast
You can use water or milk for yeast breads!
Milk produces a softer crust and helps breads stay fresh longer
The temperature of the liquid affect yeast cells! You need WARM water because if the temperature is too high it will kill yeast cells and if the temperature is too low it will slow or stop yeast activity!! Your recipe will tell you the temperature that your liquid should be at!
Salt regulates the action of the yeast! Without salt, the dough will be sticky and the bread will look like a moth ate it!
Yeast is a MICROSCOPIC (tiny) single celled plant that's used as a LEAVENING AGENT (which means that yeast helps the bread rise)
Sugar helps with browning and adds flavor and texture. Sugar also provides food for the yeast so the dough will rise faster.
Fats increase tenderness of yeast breads!
Eggs add flavor and richness, add color and improve structure
So how do we make yeast breads?
Food Science Principles of Yeast Breads
Like quick breads, yeast breads require the development of gluten and carbon dioxide
Gluten will develop during mixing and kneading!
When making yeast breads, first we will mix and knead the dough.
We will then allow the dough to rise...
Then we will PUNCH the dough and shape it!
Finally, we will bake the bread and EAT IT!
And what happens when we do that???
The gluten will then trap the carbon dioxide produced by the YEAST as the dough rises! As the amount of carbon dioxide increases, the dough will rise!
We must punch the dough down to release some of the carbon dioxide! Then we can shape it into our desired form and it's ready for baking!
During baking, the gas cells that were formed when the bread was rising will E X P A N D. The walls around the cells set and become rigid.
When it's done baking, we will put it immediately onto a cooling rack to keep the bottom from getting soggy!
A high quality loaf of yeast bread has a large volume and a smooth, rounded top. The surface is golden brown and the texture is fine and uniform. It's DELICIOUS!!
OK We're done! :)
Full transcript