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Sexually Transmitted Infections/STD

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Edward Catherina

on 17 March 2016

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Transcript of Sexually Transmitted Infections/STD

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by infections that are passed from one person to another during sexual contact.
These infections often do not cause any symptoms. Medically, infections are only called diseases when they cause symptoms. That is why STDs are also called "sexually transmitted infections." But it’s very common for people to use the terms "sexually transmitted diseases" or "STDs," even when there are no signs of disease.
In the United States the reporting of national surveillance data on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) does not include all of the most common STDs.

Reporting for gonorrhea and syphilis began in 1941, but chlamydia has only been reported since 1984. The limited data that is reported for genital herpes is available from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. There is no data reporting for genital warts or non-specific urethritis. Data for these diseases are limited to estimates based on private physicians' office practices.

There are many kinds of sexually transmitted diseases and infections. And they are very common — more than half of all of us will get one at some time in our lives. The following information is compiled from the most recent literature on these infections/diseases.
What is genital HPV infection?
Genital human papilloma virus (also called HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital areas of males and females. These HPV types can also infect the mouth and throat. Most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it.
HPV is not the same as herpes or HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). These are all viruses that can be passed on during sex, but they cause different symptoms and health problems.
The genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a highly contagious, common and usually symptom free infection. Many people acquire HPV within a few years of becoming sexually active.
In most cases the HPV infection will clear up within 12-24 months. In a small number of cases though, the virus persists and may lead to cervical cancer.
Genital warts usually appear as a small bump or group of bumps in the genital area. They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower.

Warts can appear within weeks or months after sexual contact with an infected partner—even if the infected partner has no signs of genital warts.

If left untreated, genital warts might go away, remain unchanged, or increase in size or number.

They will not turn into cancer.
Cervical cancer usually does not have symptoms until it is quite advanced. For this reason, it is important for women to get regular screening for cervical cancer. Screening tests can find early signs of disease so that problems can be treated early, before they ever turn into cancer.
Other HPV-related cancers might not have signs or symptoms until they are advanced and hard to treat.  These include cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and oropharynx (back of throat including base of tongue and tonsils).
Rectal Cancer
Oropharynx and Connective tissue
HPV is passed on through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. HPV may also be passed on during oral sex and genital-to-genital contact. HPV can be passed on between straight and same-sex partners—even when the infected partner has no signs or symptoms.
A person can have HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sexual contact with an infected person. Most infected persons do not realize they are infected or that they are passing the virus on to a sex partner. It is also possible to get more than one type of HPV.
HPV can cause normal cells on infected skin to turn abnormal. Most of the time, you cannot see or feel these cell changes.
In most cases, the body fights off HPV naturally and the infected cells then go back to normal. But in cases when the body does not fight off HPV, HPV can cause visible changes in the form of genital warts or cancer.
Warts can appear within weeks or months after getting HPV.
Cancer often takes years to develop after getting HPV.
Genital warts. About 1% of sexually active adults in the U.S. have genital warts at any one time.
Cervical cancer. Each year, about 12,000 women get cervical cancer in the U.S. Almost all of these cancers are HPV-associated.
Other cancers that can be caused by HPV are less common than cervical cancer. Each year in the U.S., there are about:
1,500 women who get HPV-associated vulvar cancer
500 women who get HPV-associated vaginal cancer
Other cancers that can be caused by HPV are less common than cervical cancer. Each year in the U.S., there are about:
1,500 women who get HPV-associated vulvar cancer
500 women who get HPV-associated vaginal cancer
400 men who get HPV-associated penile cancer
Other cancers that can be caused by HPV are less common than cervical cancer. Each year in the U.S., there are about:
1,500 women who get HPV-associated vulvar cancer
500 women who get HPV-associated vaginal cancer
400 men who get HPV-associated penile cancer
2,700 women and 1,500 men who get HPV-associated anal cancer
Certain populations are at higher risk for some HPV-related health problems. This includes gay and bisexual men, and people with weak immune systems (including those who have HIV/AIDS).
Other cancers that can be caused by HPV are less common than cervical cancer. Each year in the U.S., there are about:
1,500 women who get HPV-associated vulvar cancer
500 women who get HPV-associated vaginal cancer
400 men who get HPV-associated penile cancer
2,700 women and 1,500 men who get HPV-associated anal cancer
1,500 women and 5,600 men who get HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers (cancers of the back of throat including base of tongue and tonsils)
People can also lower their chances of getting HPV by being in a faithful relationship with one partner
limiting their number of sex partners
But even people with only one lifetime sex partner can get HPV.
It may not be possible to determine if a partner who has been sexually active in the past is currently infected.
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6 million
Approximately 20 million Americans are currently infected with HPV.
Another 6 million people become newly infected each year.
HPV is so common that at least 50% of sexually active men and women get it at some point in their lives.
Other HPV-related cancers might not have signs or symptoms until they are advanced and hard to treat.  These include cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and oropharynx (back of throat including base of tongue and tonsils).
Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms or health problems from it. In 90% of cases, the body’s immune system clears HPV naturally within two years.  But, sometimes, HPV infections are not cleared and can cause:
Genital warts

Rarely, warts in the throat

Cervical cancer and other, less common but serious cancers, including cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and oropharynx (back of throat including base of tongue and tonsils).
http://www.plannedparenthood.org/all-access/check-26541.htm
CDC (Centers for Disease Control) recommends yearly chlamydia testing of all sexually active women age 25 or younger, older women with risk factors for chlamydial infections (those who have a new sex partner or multiple sex partners), and all pregnant women. An appropriate sexual risk assessment by a health care provider should always be conducted and may indicate more frequent screening for some women.
Latex male condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of transmission of chlamydia.
The surest way to avoid transmission of STDs is to abstain from sexual contact, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.
In pregnant women, there is some evidence that untreated chlamydial infections can lead to premature delivery. Babies who are born to infected mothers can get chlamydial infections in their eyes and respiratory tracts. Chlamydia is a leading cause of early infant pneumonia and conjunctivitis (pink eye) in newborns.
In women, untreated infection can spread into the uterus or fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This happens in about 10 to 15 percent of women with untreated chlamydia.
Chlamydia can also cause fallopian tube infection without any symptoms.
Men or women who have receptive anal intercourse may acquire chlamydial infection in the rectum, which can cause rectal pain, discharge, or bleeding. Chlamydia can also be found in the throats of women and men having oral sex with an infected partner.
Chlamydia symptoms in women
Abnormal vaginal discharge that may have a fishy odor
Bleeding between periods
Painful periods
Abdominal pain with fever
Pain when having sex
Itching or burning in or around the vagina
Pain when urinating
Chlamydia symptoms in men
Small amounts of clear or cloudy discharge from the tip of the penis
Painful urination
Burning and itching around the opening of the penis
Pain and swelling around the testicles
Women whose sex partners have not been appropriately treated are at high risk for re-infection. Having multiple infections increases a woman's risk of serious reproductive health complications, including infertility. Women and men with chlamydia should be retested about three months after treatment of an initial infection, regardless of whether they believe that their sex partners were treated.
All sex partners should be evaluated, tested, and treated. Persons with chlamydia should abstain from sexual intercourse for 7 days after single dose antibiotics or until completion of a 7-day course of antibiotics, to prevent spreading the infection to partners.
Chlamydia can be easily treated and cured with antibiotics. A single dose of azithromycin or a week of doxycycline (twice daily) are the most commonly used treatments. HIV-positive persons with chlamydia should receive the same treatment as those who are HIV negative.
There are laboratory tests to diagnose chlamydia. Some can be performed on urine, other tests require that a specimen be collected from a site such as the penis or cervix.
In women, the bacteria initially infect the cervix and the urethra (urine canal). Women who have symptoms might have an abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating. If the infection spreads from the cervix to the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry fertilized eggs from the ovaries to the uterus), some women still have no signs or symptoms; others have lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods. Chlamydial infection of the cervix can spread to the rectum.
Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth
Any sexually active person can be infected with chlamydia. The greater the number of sex partners, the greater the risk of infection. Because the cervix (opening to the uterus) of teenage girls and young women is not fully matured and is probably more susceptible to infection, they are at particularly high risk for infection if sexually active. Since chlamydia can be transmitted by oral or anal sex, men who have sex with men are also at risk for chlamydial infection.
It is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman's reproductive organs. Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent, serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility, can occur "silently" before a woman ever recognizes a problem. Chlamydia also can cause discharge from the penis of an infected man.
CDC recommends yearly chlamydia testing of all sexually active women age 25 or younger, older women with risk factors for chlamydial infections (those who have a new sex partner or multiple sex partners), and all pregnant women. An appropriate sexual risk assessment by a health care provider should always be conducted and may indicate more frequent screening for some women.
PID and “silent” infection in the upper genital tract can cause permanent damage to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and surrounding tissues. The damage can lead to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus). Chlamydia may also increase the chances of becoming infected with HIV, if exposed.
Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. In 2009, 1,244,180 chlamydial infections were reported to CDC from 50 states and the District of Columbia. Under-reporting is substantial because most people with chlamydia are not aware of their infections and do not seek testing. Also, testing is not often done if patients are treated for their symptoms. An estimated 2.8 million infections occur annually in the U.S. Women are frequently re-infected if their sex partners are not treated.
Complications among men are rare. Infection sometimes spreads to the epididymis (the tube that carries sperm from the testis), causing pain, fever, and, rarely, sterility.
Rarely, genital chlamydial infection can cause arthritis that can be accompanied by skin lesions and inflammation of the eye and urethra (Reiter's syndrome).
Chlamydia


Most people who have chlamydia don't know it since the infection often has no symptoms
Chlamydia is the most commonly reported STD in the United States. Sexually active females 25 years old and younger need testing every year. Easy to cure, chlamydia can impact a woman’s ability to have children if left untreated.
What is Chlamydia?
How common is chlamydia?
How do people get chlamydia?
What are the symptoms of chlamydia?
chlamydia is known as a 'silent' disease because the majority of infected people have no symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure!
What are the symptoms of chlamydia?
Men with signs or symptoms might have a discharge from their penis or a burning sensation when urinating.
Men might also have burning and itching around the opening
of the penis. Pain and swelling in the testicles are uncommon
What complications can result from untreated chlamydia?
If untreated, chlamydial infections can progress to serious reproductive and other health problems with both short-term and long-term consequences. Like the disease itself, the damage that chlamydia causes is often "silent"!
What complications can result from untreated chlamydia?
What complications can result from untreated chlamydia?
How does chlamydia affect a pregnant woman and her baby?
How is chlamydia diagnosed?
What is the treatment for chlaymida?
What is the treatment for chlamydia?
How can chlamydia be prevented?
How can chlamydia be prevented?
How can chlamydia be prevented?
How can chlamydia be prevented?
What is gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a bacterium. Gonorrhea can grow easily in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract, including the cervix (opening to the womb), uterus, and fallopian tubes in women, and in the urethra in women and men. The bacterium can also grow in the mouth, throat, eyes, and anus.
How common is gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is a very common infectious disease. CDC estimates that, annually, 820,000 people in the United States get new gonorrhea infections and less than half of these infections are detected and reported to CDC. CDC estimates that 570,000 of them were among young people 15-24 years of age. In 2011, 321,849 cases of gonorrhea were reported to CDC.
The things you learn in conversing with fellow professors… Why was gonorrhea called the clap? A strong possibility is because of a once-prescribed treatment: clapping the penis hard, for example, with a book against a table or a swift clap with the hands.
Another probable reason why gonorrhea was referred to as clap is that it was a bastardized form of a word. During the World War days, gonorrhea was very common among the GIs. It was said that the personnel who treated the patients would refer to the GIs as having the collapse. As a bastardized form of the word collapse, it was called the clap.
Why they call it 'the clap'
How do people get gonorrhea?
People get gonorrhea by having sex with someone who has the disease. “Having sex” means anal, vaginal, or oral sex. Gonorrhea can still be transmitted via fluids even if a man does not ejaculate. Gonorrhea can also be spread from an untreated mother to her baby during childbirth.
People who have had gonorrhea and have been treated may get infected again if they have sexual contact with a person infected with gonorrhea.
What are the symptoms of gonorrhea?
Some men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all. However, common symptoms in men include a
burning sensation when urinating
, or a white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis that
usually appears 1 to 14 days after infection
. Sometimes men with gonorrhea get painful or swollen testicles.
Most women with gonorrhea do not have any symptoms. Even when a woman has symptoms, they are often mild and can be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. The initial symptoms in women can include a
painful or burning sensation when urinating
, increased vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between periods. Women with gonorrhea are at risk of developing serious complications from the infection, even if symptoms are not present or are mild.
What are the complications of gonorrhea?
In women, gonorrhea can spread into the uterus (womb) or fallopian tubes (egg canals) and cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The symptoms may be mild or can be very severe and can include abdominal pain and fever. PID can lead to internal abscesses (pus-filled pockets that are hard to cure) and chronic (long-lasting) pelvic pain. PID can damage the fallopian tubes enough that a woman will be unable to have children. It also can increase her risk of ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening condition in which a fertilized egg grows outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube.
In men, gonorrhea can cause a painful condition called epididymitis in the tubes attached to the testicles. In rare cases, this may prevent a man from being able to father children.
If not treated, gonorrhea can also spread to the blood or joints. This condition can be life-threatening.
How does gonorrhea affect a pregnant woman and her baby?
If a pregnant woman has gonorrhea, she may give the infection to her baby as the baby passes through the birth canal during delivery. This can cause serious health problems for the baby. Treating gonorrhea as soon as it is detected in pregnant women will make these health outcomes less likely. Pregnant women should consult a health care provider for appropriate examination, testing, and treatment, as necessary.
Who should be tested for gonorrhea?
Any sexually active person can be infected with gonorrhea. Anyone with genital symptoms such as discharge, burning during urination, unusual sores, or rash should stop having sex and see a health care provider immediately.
Also, anyone with an oral, anal, or vaginal sex partner who has been recently diagnosed with an STD should see a health care provider for evaluation.
People who have gonorrhea should also be tested for other STDs.
How is gonorrhea diagnosed?
Most of the time, a urine test can be used to test for gonorrhea. However, if a person has had oral and/or anal sex, swabs may be used to collect samples from the throat and/or rectum. In some cases, a swab may be used to collect a sample from a man’s urethra (urine canal) or a woman’s cervix (opening to the womb).
What is the treatment for gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea can be cured with the right treatment. Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease. Drug-resistant strains of gonorrhea are increasing, and successful treatment of gonorrhea is becoming more difficult. If a person’s symptoms continue for more than a few days after receiving treatment, he or she should return to a health care provider to be reevaluated
How can gonorrhea be prevented?
Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of getting or giving gonorrhea. The most certain way to avoid gonorrhea is to not have sex or to be in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.
What about partners?
If a person has been diagnosed and treated for gonorrhea, he or she should tell all recent anal, vaginal, or oral sex partners so they can see a health care provider and be treated. This will reduce the risk that the sex partners will develop serious complications from gonorrhea and will also reduce the person’s risk of becoming re-infected. A person with gonorrhea and all of his or her sex partners must avoid having sex until they have completed their treatment for gonorrhea and until they no longer have symptoms. For tips on talking to partners about sex and STD testing, visit www.gytnow.org/talking-to-your-partner/
Cancer of the Penis
What is genital herpes?
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2)
How common is genital herpes?
CDC estimates that, annually, 776,000 people in the United States get new herpes infections. Genital herpes infection is common in the United States. Nationwide, 16.2%, or about one out of six, people aged 14 to 49 years have genital HSV-2 infection. Over the past decade, the percentage of persons with genital herpes infection in the United States has remained stable.
Transmission from an infected male to his female partner is more likely than from an infected female to her male partner. Because of this, genital HSV-2 infection is more common in women (approximately one out of five women aged 14 to 49 years) than in men (about one out of nine men aged 14 to 49 years).
What are the symptoms of genital herpes?
Most individuals infected with HSV-1 or HSV-2 experience either no symptoms or have very mild symptoms that go unnoticed or are mistaken for another skin condition. Because of this, most people infected with HSV-2 are not aware of their infection. When symptoms do occur, they typically appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals, rectum or mouth. The blisters break and leave painful sores that may take two to four weeks to heal. Experiencing these symptoms is sometimes referred to as having an “outbreak.” The first time someone has an outbreak they may also experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, body aches and swollen glands.
Repeat outbreaks of genital herpes are common, in particular during the first year of infection. Symptoms of repeat outbreaks are typically shorter in duration and less severe than the first outbreak of genital herpes. Although the infection can stay in the body indefinitely, the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over a period of years.
How do people get genital herpes?
People get herpes by having sex with someone who has the disease. “Having sex” means anal, vaginal, or oral sex. HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be found in and released from the sores that the viruses cause. The viruses can also be released from skin that does not appear to have a sore. Generally, a person can only get HSV-2 infection during sexual contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection. Transmission can occur from an infected partner who does not have a visible sore and may not know that he or she is infected.
HSV-1 can cause sores in the genital area and infections of the mouth and lips, so-called “fever blisters.” HSV-1 infection of the genitals is caused by mouth to genital or genital to genital contact with a person who has HSV-1 infection.
What are the complications of genital herpes?
Genital herpes can cause painful genital sores in many adults and can be severe in people with suppressed immune systems. If a person with genital herpes touches their sores or the fluids from the sores, they may transfer herpes to another part of the body. This is particularly problematic if it is a sensitive location such as the eyes. This can be avoided by not touching the sores or fluids. If they are touched, immediate and thorough hand-washing make the transfer less likely.
Some people who contract genital herpes have concerns about how it will impact their overall health, sex life, and relationships. It is best to talk to a health care provider about those concerns, but it also is important to recognize that while herpes is not curable, it is a manageable condition. Since a genital herpes diagnosis may affect perceptions about existing or future sexual relationships, it is important to understand how to talk to sexual partners about STDs. One resource can be found here: GYT Campaign.
How does genital herpes affect a pregnant woman and her baby?
It is crucial that pregnant women infected with HSV-1 or HSV-2 go to prenatal care visits and tell their doctor if they have ever experienced any symptoms of, been exposed to, or been diagnosed with genital herpes. Sometimes genital herpes infection can lead to miscarriage or premature birth. Herpes infection can be passed from mother to child resulting in a potentially fatal infection (neonatal herpes). It is important that women avoid contracting herpes during pregnancy.
How is genital herpes diagnosed?
Health care providers can diagnose genital herpes by visual inspection if the outbreak is typical. Providers can also take a sample from the sore(s) and test it. Sometimes, HSV infections can be diagnosed between outbreaks with a blood test. A person should discuss such testing options with their health care provider.
Tests used to diagnose or screen for genital herpes include:

PCR blood test: The PCR blood test can tell if you have genital herpes even if you don't have symptoms. The PCR test looks for pieces of the virus' DNA. This is the most common test used to diagnose genital herpes and is very accurate.

Cell culture: During the exam, your health care provider can take a sample of cells from a sore and look for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) under a microscope.

Cell culture or PCR test may give a false-negative result if the sores have begun healing or if you are recently infected. It takes several weeks for HSV antibodies to show up in the blood. A false-negative test shows you don't have the condition when in fact you do. False-positive test results are possible, too. If you test positive, but your risk for getting the virus is low, you may need to be tested again.

PCR and cell culture tests show that you have been exposed to the virus at some point. It is difficult to tell from these tests when the exposure may have occurred. You may have had HSV for many years before you have your first noticeable outbreak. Or you may have never had an outbreak but still may be contagious to a sexual partner.

Other Genital Herpes Tests:

Antibody tests are also used to diagnose genital herpes. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection. With direct fluorescent antibody testing, a solution containing HSV antibodies and a fluorescent dye is added to the sample of cells. If the virus is present in the sample, the antibodies stick to it and glow when viewed under a special microscope.
Antibody tests can tell the difference between the two types of HSV. It's important to know which type you have. If you're infected with type 2 (HSV-2), you may have outbreaks more often than you would if you had type 1 (HSV-1). What's more, knowing which type you have gives a clue as to how you were infected. HSV-1 usually infects the genitals through oral sex, and HSV-2 usually is passed on during vaginal or anal sex.
Is there a cure or treatment for herpes?
There is no treatment that can cure herpes. Antiviral medications can, however, prevent or shorten outbreaks during the period of time the person takes the medication. In addition, daily suppressive therapy (i.e., daily use of antiviral medication) for herpes can reduce the likelihood of transmission to partners.
Vidarabine was probably the first antiviral drug available for the treatment of HSV. On the other hand, this drug is not as safe as acyclovir.
How can herpes be prevented?
Correct and consistent use of latex condoms can reduce the risk of genital herpes, because herpes symptoms can occur in both male and female genital areas that are covered or protected by a latex condom. However, outbreaks can occur in areas that are not covered by a condom.
The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including genital herpes, is to abstain from sexual contact, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.
Persons with herpes should abstain from sexual activity with partners when sores or other symptoms of herpes are present. It is important to know that even if a person does not have any symptoms, he or she can still infect sex partners. Sex partners of infected persons should be advised that they may become infected and they should use condoms to reduce the risk. Sex partners can seek testing to determine if they are infected with HSV.
What is syphilis?
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a bacterium. Syphilis can cause long-term complications and/or death if not adequately treated.
Treponema pallidum: a spirochete bacterium
How common is syphilis?
CDC estimates that, annually, 55,400 people in the United States get new syphilis infections. There were 46,042 reported new cases of syphilis in 2011, compared to 48,298 estimated new diagnoses of HIV infection and 321,849 cases of gonorrhea in 2011. Of new cases of syphilis, 13,970 cases were of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis, the earliest and most infectious stages of syphilis. In 2011, 72% of P&S syphilis occurred among men who have sex with men. There were also 360 reports of children with congenital syphilis in 2011.
How do people get syphilis?
Syphilis is transmitted from person to person by direct contact with syphilis sores. Sores occur mainly on the external genitals, vagina, anus, or in the rectum. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. Syphilis can be transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sexual contact. Pregnant women with the disease can pass it to their unborn children.
How quickly do symptoms appear after infection?
The average time between infection with syphilis and appearance of the first symptom is 21 days, but it can range from 10 to 90 days.
What are the symptoms in adults?
Primary Stage - MALE
The appearance of a single sore marks the first (primary) stage of syphilis symptoms, but there may be multiple sores. The sore appears at the location where syphilis entered the body. The sore is usually firm, round, and painless. Because the sore is painless, it can easily go unnoticed. The sore lasts 3 to 6 weeks and heals regardless of whether or not a person is treated. However, if the infected person does not receive adequate treatment the infection progresses to the secondary stage.
What are the symptoms in adults?
Primary Stage - FEMALE
The appearance of a single sore marks the first (primary) stage of syphilis symptoms, but there may be multiple sores. The sore appears at the location where syphilis entered the body. The sore is usually firm, round, and painless. Because the sore is painless, it can easily go unnoticed. The sore lasts 3 to 6 weeks and heals regardless of whether or not a person is treated. However, if the infected person does not receive adequate treatment the infection progresses to the secondary stage.
Secondary Stage
What are the symptoms in adults?
Skin rashes and/or sores in the mouth, vagina, or anus (also called mucous membrane lesions ) mark the secondary stage of symptoms. This stage usually starts with a rash on one or more areas of the body. Rashes associated with secondary syphilis can appear from the time when the primary sore is healing to several weeks after the sore has healed. The rash usually does not cause itching. This rash may appear as rough, red, or reddish brown spots both on the palms of the hands and/or the bottoms of the feet.
Late and Latent Stages
What are the symptoms in adults?
The latent (hidden) stage of syphilis begins when primary and secondary symptoms disappear. Without treatment, the infected person can continue to have syphilis in their body even though there are no signs or symptoms. This latent stage can last for years.
About 15% of people who have not been treated for syphilis develop late stage syphilis, which can appear 10–30 years after infection began. Symptoms of the late stage of syphilis include difficulty coordinating muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, and dementia. In the late stages of syphilis, the disease damages the internal organs, including the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, and joints. This damage can result in death.
How does syphilis affect a pregnant woman and her baby?
A pregnant woman with syphilis can pass the disease to her unborn baby. Babies born with syphilis can have many health problems. This may lead to low birth weight, premature delivery or even having a stillbirth.
An infected baby may be born without signs or symptoms of disease. However, if not treated immediately, the baby may develop serious problems within a few weeks. Untreated babies can have many health problems (such as cataracts, deafness, or seizures), and they can die.
How is syphilis diagnosed?
A blood test is the most common way to determine if someone has syphilis. Shortly after infection, the body produces syphilis antibodies that can be detected by an accurate, safe, and inexpensive blood test.
Some health care providers can diagnose syphilis by examining material from a syphilis sore using a special microscope called a dark-field microscope. If syphilis bacteria are present in the sore, they will show up when observed through the microscope.
How is syphilis treated?
Treatment:
Syphilis can be treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin G benzathine, doxycycline, or tetracycline (for patients who are allergic to penicillin). Length of treatment depends on how severe the syphilis is, and factors such as the patient's overall health.
Syphilis can be cured if it is diagnosed early and completely treated. Secondary syphilis can be cured if it is diagnosed early and treated effectively. Although it usually goes away within weeks, in some cases it may last for up to 1 year. Without treatment, up to one-third of patients will have late complications of syphilis.
Late syphilis may be permanently disabling, and it may lead to death.
Gonorrhea
Sexually transmitted diseases, commonly called STDs, are diseases that are spread by having sex with someone who has an STD. You can get a sexually transmitted disease from sexual activity that involves the mouth, anus, vagina, or penis.

According to the American Social Health Organization, one out of four teens in the United States becomes infected with an STD each year. By the age of 25, half of all sexually active young adults will get an STD.

STDs are serious illnesses that require treatment. Some STDs, like HIV, cannot be cured and are deadly. By learning more, you can find out ways to protect yourself from the following STDs.

If you have sex, you may also have an STD, with subtle or noticeable STD symptoms. Straight or gay, married or single, you're vulnerable to STDs and STD symptoms, whether you engage in oral, anal or vaginal sex.

Although condoms are highly effective for reducing transmission of STDs, keep in mind that no method is foolproof.

STD symptoms aren't always obvious. If you think you have STD symptoms or have been exposed to an STD, see a doctor. Some STDs can be treated easily and eliminated, but others require more involved, long-term treatment.

Either way, it's essential to be evaluated, and — if diagnosed with an STD, also known as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) — get treated. It's also essential to inform any partners so that they can be evaluated and treated. If untreated, STDs can increase your risk of acquiring another STD such as HIV. This happens because an STD can stimulate an immune response in the genital area or cause sores, either of which might make HIV transmission more likely. Some untreated STDs can also lead to infertility.
1 out of 4
STIs often asymptomatic

You could have an STI and be asymptomatic — without any signs or symptoms. In fact, this happens with a lot of STIs. Even though you have no symptoms, you're still at risk of passing the infection along to your sex partners. That's why it's important to use protection, such as a condom, during sex. And visit your doctor on a regular basis for STI screening, so you can identify a potential infection and get treated for it before passing it along to someone else.
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What Are the Symptoms of STDs?
Sometimes, there are no symptoms of STDs. If symptoms are present, they may include one or more of the following:

Bumps, sores, or warts near the mouth, anus, penis, or vagina.
Swelling or redness near the penis or vagina.
Skin rash.
Painful urination.
Weight loss, loose stools, night sweats.
Aches, pains, fever, and chills.
Yellowing of the skin (jaundice).
Discharge from the penis or vagina. Vaginal discharge may have an odor.
Bleeding from the vagina other than during a monthly period.
Painful sex.
Severe itching near the penis or vagina.
Abstinence from sex
There are female condoms!
Bacterial - Sexually Transmitted Infections
GONORRHEA
SYPHILIS
CHLAMYDIA
SHIGELLA
Common sexually transmitted bacterial organisms may affect the anorectum and perianal skin. While some of these infections are a result of contiguous spread from genital infection, most result from receptive anal intercourse. Polymicrobial infection is common and there is overlap in symptoms caused by the organisms that may infect the anorectum.
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