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Coaching and Mentoring
Transcript of Coaching and Mentoring
To reflect upon the relationship between the two terms showing evidence of analysis, synthesis and application of knowledge. Module: IE9B6 My own thoughts and reflections
can be identified throughout this
presentation by the following symbol... ...is a structured, sustained process for supporting professional learners through significant career transitions. (CUREE) Coaching is a structured, sustained process for enabling the development of a specific aspect of a professional learner's practice. (CUREE) ...is Usually a 'fellow professionals with knowledge and expertise relevant to the goals of the professional learner.' What is... 'A joint enterprise in which one person supports another to develop their understanding and practice in an area defined by their own needs and interests.' NCSL A coach 'will secure a positive rapport with their colleagues, listen intently to their needs and concerns, ask probing questions that help clarify the area for development and ask challenging questions that raise their awareness of the issue in focus.'
(NCSL, 2005) Socrates saw himself as a 'midwife to undersanding'. He believed that 'one could help people understand, but that one could not make people understand - just as a midwife delivers, but does not give birth to, the child.' (Landsberg, 1996: 34)
Landsberg (1996) links Socrates' theories to the concept of coaching - he believed a coach could be seen as a 'midwife to skill building'. 'The meeting of two individulas is like the contact of two chemical substances: if there is a reaction, both are transformed.' C. G. Jung
In this witticism the coach is depicted as a closed horse drawn carriage able to gets a passenger from A to B. It is a common misconception therefore that a coach - is an instructor who must be able to 'carry' a pupil from one place to another.
However this analogy can help to describe coaching (in its simplest form) as a vehicle to help the professional learner 'identify where they are and enable them to get to where they want to be.' (Blackman, 2010: 424) ...is 'Usually chosen by professional learners themselves.' (CUREE, 2005) UCST Head of Department
I feel it is important for the reader to understand
my own context within this presentation, in order to realise the lens in which I am viewing mentoring and coaching through.
My own experiences as a...
will be highlighted throughout this presentation. The coach... The professional learner... ...enables the client 'to take control of their own learning through
non judgemental questioning and support.' ...is 'someone tackling a specific teaching and learning or leadership
challenge who seeks out or is offered coaching. (CUREE, 2005) 'Coaching is about unlocking potential in order to maximise performance it’s about bringing out the best in people.' (NCSL, 2005) 'A one-on-one helping relationship which is entered into with mutual agreement...the relationship between the client and coach is one of the most essential processes of coaching.' This can only come about when the key processes associated with the client-coach relationship are established. These are 'building and maintaining rapport,
establishing and maintaining trust, and encouraging commitment.' Lets link coaching to the theories of Socrates:... In the Times English Dictionary (HarperCollins 2000) the term coach is defined as a trainer or instructor. The word comes from the Hungarian name of the town where coaches (as vehicles) were first made. CoachinG is the art of facilitating the performance, learning and development of another (Downey 1999). CoachinG is a pragmatic humanism. ... Coaching is also a method to enhance performance and a leadership style that gets results (Rosinski 2003). A coaching partnership is a non-possessive warmth. This is the idea that the coach views the coachee as a capable person, who knows the solutions to his or her problems.' Good coaches have coaches of their own who support them and challenge them to become more aware of how they interact during coaching sessions, and who encourage them in their continuing professional development as coaches. 'It is not the role of the coach to provide answers or to give advice, but to support the development of the thinking and learning of the professional learner – to inspire self-directed change.' (NCSL) The term ‘coaching’ has many different definitions attached to it - all different depending on the context in which it is delivered.
To make things worse, people often use the term ‘mentoring’ interchangeably with ‘coaching’ causing greater confusion.
This presentation will firstly look at the main issues and critical points associated with coaching. The UCST have adopted a coaching mindset... The idea that coaching is about ‘unlocking a person’s potential to maximise their own performance’ (Whitmore et al. 1996) interests me, especially as there is a link between this and the school ethos in which I work. The school is one of 11 independent schools part of the UCST and has one shared objective, to bring out 'the best in everyone'. Through membership of UCST all teaching staff benefit from a high standard of professional training of which I was selected to attend the Middle Leader Program. This 3-day residential focused predominately upon becoming an effective leader, coaching was seen to be an integral part.
The course offered a number of one-on-one sessions with a coach where the results of my 360-degree leadership survey were analysed and discussed. Alongside the coach we were able to plan our own development in light of the results.
A number of coaching workshops were delivered aiming to develop the skills needed to become an effective coach; through practice I felt confident enough to use such techniques to bring out the best of the staff within my own department. Experiences such as these have allowed me to experience the effects of coaching from the perspective of both a professional learner and a coach. I have also been able to see how coaching benefits both parties...
'Coaching not only benefits the coachee...but also indirectly benefits the organisation. (Blackman, 2010: 422)
‘In order to get the individual to think and act in new ways, the individuals’ skills, abilities and knowledge are emphasised.’
(Coleman in Blackman, 2010: 422) The true coach is an enabler rather than someone with the answer to all questions and problems. Indeed, the coach may know very little about a particular process or issue, but can still fulfil a coaching role successfully. It is central to any understanding of coaching that managers recognize that an effective coach can develop the learner beyond the limits of the coach’s own personal knowledge and experience.
(Phillips, 1996: 32) Coaching Toolbox What is... The mentor... The professional
learner... ...is 'someone tackling a new or particularly challenging stage in her/his professional development who seeks out or is directed towards mentoring. (CUREE, 2005) It is... (Boyce, Jackson and Neal, 2010: 217) (Boyce, Jackson and Neal, 2010: 217) (Passmore, 2010: 159) (Hay, 2003: 2) The coach will help the learner identify new behaviours and help them embed improved performance. Coaching often involves integrating new or alternative approaches into the professional’s existing repertoire of skills and strategies. (NCSL, 2005) ...is usually a more experienced colleague; someone very familiar with a particular culture and role, who has influence and can use their experience to help an individual analyse their situation in order to facilitate professional and career development. (CUREE, 2005) Mentoring for Induction... Mentoring for Progression Mentoring for Challenge ...is used to support professional learners on joining a new school.
...for Newly Qualified Teachers this will also include induction into the profession as a whole.
(CUREE, 2005) ...is used to support professional learners to resond to the demands of the new role, to understand
the responsibilities it brings and the values it implies. (CUREE, 2005) ...is used to enable professional learners to address
significant issues that may inhibit progress.
(CUREE, 2005) Professional learners develop their ability to: Coaches learn to:
This presentation will look now at the main issues and critical points associated with mentoring aiming to highlight the main similariies and differences between the two terms. In summary... The evolving personal and professional
relationship between mentors and mentees
is ideally reciprocal, mutually beneficial and
responsive to the mentee's changing needs. (Dobie, Smith and Robins, 2010: 339) Good mentors possess rich pedaogical content knowledge
which enables them to represent problems in qualitatively rich
and deep ways, to engage in fast and accurate pattern
recognition and bring rich, personal sources of information
to bear on the problems and dilemmas that they confront. (Berliner in Orland-Brook & Hasin, 2010: 429) The good mentor is also described as a model of an ongoing learner who exhibits transparency, is open to learning from collegues and new teachers, strives for personal growth, engages in the development of new curricula, reads professional articles and shares his or her new knowledge with others. (Rowley in Orland-Barak & Hasin, 2010: 429) A 'good mentors is seen to be an expert in the subject
matter that s/he mentors...(they are) expert teachers with
rich content, practical and pedagogical content knowledge.' A good mentor can 'infer how to act upon new
situations from previous experiences.' (Berliner in Orland-Barak & Hasin, 2010: 429) (Author in Orland-Barak & Hasin, 2010: 429) Mentors learn to: Professional learners develop their ability to: References
Blackman, A., 2010. Coaching as a leadership development tool for teachers. Professional Development in Education [e-journal] 36 (3) Available through: Routledge - Taylor and Francis Group [Accessed on 4th December 2010]
Boyce, L., Jackson, R. and Neal, L., 2010. Building successful leadership coaching relationships: Examining impact of matching criteria in a leadership coaching program. Journal of Management Development [e-journal] 29 (10) Avaliable through: Emerald [Accessed in 10th November 2010]
CfBT Education Trust, 2010. Coaching for teaching and learning: a practical guide for schools. [pdf] Available at: http://www.cfbt.com/evidenceforeducation/pdf/5414_CfT_FINAL(Web).pdf [Accessed 10th December 2010]
Creasy, J. and Paterson, F., 2005. Leading Coaching in School. [pdf] London: National College for School Leadership (NCSL). Available at: http://www.nationalcollege.org.uk/index/docinfo.htm?id=17252 [Accessed 3rd December 2011]
CUREE, 2005. National Framework for Mentoring and Coaching. [pdf] Available at: http://www.curee.co.uk/files/publication/1219925968/National-framework-for-mentoring-and-coaching.pdf [Accessed 7th December 2011]
Dobie, S., Smith, S. and Robins, L., 2010. How assigned faculty mentors view their mentoring relationships: An interview study of mentors in medical education. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in learning, [e-journal] 18 (4) Available through: Routledge. [Accessed on 4th November 2010]
Hanbury, M., 2009. Coaching and Mentoring. [pdf] National College for Leadership of Schools and Children’s Services. Available at: http://www.nationalcollege.org.uk/docinfo?id=31660&filename=leadership-coaching-summary.pdf [Accessed 3rd December 2011]
Hay, J., 2003. Coaching [pdf] Train the Trainer (7) Fenton Ltd. Available http://www.fenman.co.uk/cat/product_info/Coaching.pdf
Landsberg, M., 1997. The Tao of Coaching: Boost Your Effectiveness at Work by Inspiring and Developing Those Around You. HarperCollins.
Passmore, J. ed., 2010. Excellence in Coaching: The Industry Guide, London: Kogan Page Ltd.
Phillips, R., 1996. Coaching for higher performance. Journal of Workplace Learning. [e-journal] 8 (4) Available through: Emerald [Accessed on 22nd December 2011]
Orland-Barak, L. and Hasin, R. 2010. Exemplary mentors’ perspectives towards mentoring across mentoring contexts: Lessons from collective case studies. Teaching and Teacher Education. [e-journal] 26 Available through: Elsevier Ltd. I feel that I am at the forefront of the latest developments in equipping teachers of the future with the necessary skills to be excellent classroom practitioners as I have been a mentor for the Initial Teacher Training Programme. The impact of this allows me to take the up to date knowledge a trainee has to offer and to apply it to keep the curriculum fresh and moving with the times of the developments in teaching and learning. The programme forges invaluable links with local university and other providers. Through CPD I have become more aware of the strengths I have as a leader. Through simulation I have been able to practise my leadership skills and get useful feedback in a secure, supportive environment. Such opportunities have allowed me to find out about default and learned leadership behaviours, to explore the challenges and satisfactions of leading fellow professionals and allowed me to develop strategies, in practice. Mentoring has enabled me to enhance the subject specific skills of the non specialists teachers within my department and coaching has allowed me to recognise their readiness to deliver the newly implemented schemes of work, motivating others to perform more effectively as reflective practitioners. I have come to realise how beneficial having a coaching culture within a department is, in order to enhance the performance and learning ability of other staff members through techniques such as effective questioning and feedback - I believe it has helped to develop and sustain a successful team. I have used a number of witticisms thoughout this presentation, carefully selected to make a statement through pictorial satire and offer an opposing view.