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Additive Manufacturing

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Thomas Booker

on 24 April 2014

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Transcript of Additive Manufacturing

Additive Manufacturing
Summary
Overview of AM
Industries and Applications
National Strategies and Initiatives
Policy Challenges & Risks
Crafting Future Policies and Plans
Deliverables, Outcomes and Discussion

What’s so “Additive” About It?
Making 3D solid objects from a digital model
Virtually any shape
Additive instead of subtractive
(cutting, drilling, etc)

General Process
Modeling
3D scanning or CAD (Computer Aided Design)
Printing
Layers of cross sections
Liquid, powder, or sheet material
Finishing

1) Hobbyist
2) Enterprise
3) Institutional
4) Other
Categories of Printers
1
2
3
Benefits
Customization and specialization to tasks
On-demand convenience
Flexibility
Simplicity of logistics
Cost efficiency
Speed

Limitations
Designs have to “fit” in a printer
Not all materials can be “printed”
Mass production is better in some cases
Requires some professional knowledge (at the moment)
Industry and
Applications
Existing Applications
Rapid Prototyping
Rapid Manufacturing
Mass Customization
Rapid Prototyping (RP)
A digitally driven process
“End product as a prototype”
Used as a vehicle for visualization
Mistakes can be corrected during the development stages of design
Rapid Manufacturing (RM) / Series Production (SP)
Rapid manufacturing is the direct production of finished goods from a rapid prototyping device

Can produce parts more rapidly instead of having to wait for traditional manufacturing that could take months
Mass Customization (MC)
Mass customization allows customers to “customize” the product, in which they could set parameters to whatever they need or want

However, customizing each parameter leads to high development costs

At the same time, it leads to greater differentiation and a longer shelf life for the product
Dulag, Philippines on Nov. 13, 2026
Dulag on Sept. 12, 2026
Scenario 1
Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief

USS Mercy responds
Application 1:
3D print pump cylinder replacement
MH-60 Seahawk delivers pump cylinder.
Conduct casualty evacuation.
Application 2:
Medical staff on-board
USS Mercy
print replacement skull.
MH-60 lands, delivers patient, but experiences engine failure.

Application 2:
Temporary replacement part is printed to repair engine and free the flight deck for further operations.
Improving Weapons Acquisition
National Level Strategies
NSS (2010)
“A National Strategic Plan for Advanced Manufacturing” (2012)
Federally Initiated Groups / activities
-White House
-Commerce
-DOE
-DOD

Transdisciplinary
“We created our first manufacturing innovation institute in Youngstown, Ohio. A once-shuttered warehouse is now a state-of-the art lab where new workers are mastering the 3D printing that has the potential to revolutionize the way we make almost everything. There’s no reason this can’t happen in other towns.”
-Pres. Obama SOTU (2013)

Threats and Policy Challenges
Characteristics:
Digitization of Designs
Disruptive
Untraceable

Three Levels:
Domestic
International
Economic

Domestic Concerns
3D printing of illicit objects is inherently difficult to monitor
Currently limited by materials
3D printed firearms
AR-15
Liberator - 2013
Firing pin is a nail
Undetectable Firearms Act

International Challenges

Robust set of legal and regulatory procedures designed to control the quantity, end-use and parties involved in the transaction for any potential export
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)
Wassenaar Arrangement (WA)
The ability to print an item on site could seriously disrupt export control systems that are inherently designed to monitor transactions
Lisa He
Kelsey Hartigan
Devin Myler
Ian Balczewski
Intellectual Property Rights
Companies will need to protect their products/designs
Consumers and competitors can create CAD files and reproduce a product on their own
3D marketplace - virtual space where users buy, sell and freely share digital 3D printable files
Policy Recommendations

Create a regulatory framework that protects industry and deals with domestic, international and economic threats
Three key components for regulating AM:
The printer
The information/materials
The final product
Plank 1: Manufacturing & Distribution
Start at the source: Develop a process for licensing the ability to manufacture 3-D printers

Regulate distribution: From the manufacturer to the distributor, from the distributor to third parties
Plank 2: “Ink” & Information
Prioritize regulation of specialized materials and product designs/files
CAD files need an “official” copyright digital tag
Incorporate controls in existing 3D marketplaces
Prioritize most sensitive designs
Embed geo-locations services

Plank 3:
Final Product
Regulating the final 3-D printed product is difficult
Scale matters: Easier to monitor end-use when items are printed on a larger scale
Focus on other indicators of misuse
Bullets or gunpowder

Plan of Action:
Convene stakeholders to shape regulation and copyright practices and provide input before policies are implemented
Leverage existing institutions and initiatives
Better understand lessons learned from the music industry

Objectives
Promote Innovation
Guarantee Liberties
Assure Product Quality
Protect Intellectual Property
Maximize Legal Usage
Protect Public Interests
Plan of Action (Cont.)
Short term (<5 years)
Expand America Makes Initiative
Convene Best Practices Dialogue
Incentivize small business adoption of technology
Increase basic research
Material applications
Long term (5-10 years)
Establish regulatory framework
Improve acquisition programs
Mandate access to 3D Manufacturing in federally funded research and development centers
Discussion Questions
What are some other applications of Additive Manufacturing within the National Security context?
How should policy makers regulate the Additive Manufacturing Industry and what are the ethical implications of doing so?
The U.S. export control system is designed to limit access to the most sensitive U.S. technology and weapons
Stakeholders
Federal Government
Department of Commerce (DOC)
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Department of Defense (DOD)
Department of Energy (DOE)
Department of State (DOS)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI)
Director of National Intelligence (DNI)
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC)
Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
National Science Foundation (NSF)
Industry
3D Systems Corporation
Oxford Performance Materials
Boeing
Lockheed Martin
Northrop Grumman
Stratasys Manufacturing Solutions Group
Wohlers Associates, Inc.
Concurrent Technologies Corporation
GE Aviation
GE Global Research
Raytheon

Universities
Carnegie Mellon University
MIT Lincoln Lab
Pennsylvania State University (ARL)
University of Connecticut
University of Pittsburgh
Summary of Applications
Manufacturing Industries
Automotive, Aviation
Medical
Do-it-Yourself
Patient transported for treatment.

Application 3:
Skull is measured, fashioned, and transplanted.
Full transcript