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The Cold War Comes to the Middle East
Transcript of The Cold War Comes to the Middle East
to the MIDDLE EAST
1945 -1967 The inconsistent and reactionary nature of American foreign policy in the region
Changing spheres of influence – from Britain and France to the US and the USSR
Increasing tensions between America's regional priorities – that is support for Israel vs. support for the Arab states The BrITISH MANDATE of PaLESTINE THE MIDDLE EAST AT THE END
OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR MAJOR THEMES OF THIS LECTURE PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES ARABIAN-AMERICAN
OIL COMPANY tWIN PILLARS OF EARLY AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY IN THE mIDDLE EAST What IS THE MIDDLE EAST? Invented region
For this lecture, refers to: the Levant, Persian Gulf, Egypt, Iran, Turkey, and Israel/Palestine Largely controlled by France and Great Britain
through the mandate system, and the
conservative Arab monarchies - the status quo
before the war, remained after the war. CreatION OF ISRAEL
MAY 15TH, 1948 President Truman extended recognition to Israel eleven minutes after its declaration.
The Arab states (Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, Lebanon and Syria with the support of Saudi Arabia and Yemen) immediately declare war on Israel.
Israel is able to survive and its existence would become both a focal point and a complication for the American presence in the region, a dilemma that continues today. WHY DOES TRUMAN SUPPORT ISRAEL? Highly debated question with many possible answers.
Domestic political voting concerns with the 1948 elections.
Goes against his foreign policy advisers in the State Department.
Though supportive, was still critical of Israel and tried to push for a peaceful solution to the conflict.
MOST IMPORTANT: Not initially perceived as a Cold War conflict but rather a regional and religious one. NEWSREEL FOOTAGE FROM sueZ crISIS, 1956 AND 1957 Newsreel of the creatION OF THE UAR, 1958 nEWSREEL FOOTAGE OF SIX DAYS WAR, 1967 Tripartite Declaration between the US, Great Britain, and France to limit arms sold to Israel and the Arab states to limit the possibility of an arms race.
Middle East Command and Middle East Defense Organization
Expansion of ARAMCO and American oil interests. us FOREIGN POLICY POST-ISRAEL IRANIAN COUP OF 1953 Anglo-American Oil Company
Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh and Nationalization
Why did Eisenhower get rid of Mossadegh? Many factors including his belief that Mossadegh was sympathetic to communism, and fear of a conflict between Iran and Britain.
Reinstated the Shah who would rule increasingly with an iron fist until the 1979 revolution. Newsreel footage of revolutION IN IRAQ, 1958 The RISE OF ARAB NATIONALISM Since the late 1940s, the Middle East becoming increasingly radicalized – in 1949 Syria, then in 1952 Egypt, 1958 in Iraq.
Focused around prominent leaders such as Mohammad Mossadegh, and in Egypt Muhammad Naguib, then later Gamal Abdel Nasser .Pushed the Americans to support conservative monarchies and strong men throughout the region.
Signed April 2, 1954. Original signatories included Turkey, Pakistan, Iraq and Britain
Americans don’t sign on, fears Egyptian and Soviet response the baghdad pact GAMAL ABDEL NASSER American refusal of funds for the Aswan Dam .
Nasser decides to nationalize the Suez Canal.
The Israelis, French and British colluded to create a plan that would allow Israel to gain more territory in the region, and Britain and France would regain control of the canal.
On October 29th, 1956 Israel invaded Egypt, France and England issue ultimatum. Nasser refuses, England and France land their own forces on November 5th.
The Soviet Union threatened to intervene to halt hostilities, even proposing the possible use of atomic and hydrogen weapons.
A regional conflict suddenly had global implications sUEZ CRISIS OF 1956 “There is general recognition in the Middle East, as elsewhere, that the United States does not seek either political or economic domination over any other people. Our desire is a world environment of freedom, not servitude. On the other hand many, if not all, of the nations of the Middle East are aware of the danger that stems from International Communism and welcome closer cooperation with the United States to realize for themselves the United Nations goals of independence, economic well-being and spiritual growth. . . .[…]”
“It would authorize such assistance and cooperation to include the employment of the armed forces of the United States to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations, requesting such aid, against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by International Communism” The eISENHOWER DOCTRINE ADDRESS TO CONGRESS, JANUARY 5TH, 1957 LIMITS OF THE EISENHOWER DOCTRINE:
LEBANON 1958 Impact of the Iraqi Revolution.
Weakening of the Baghdad Pact.
Involvement continues in the Gulf countries.
Seeds of American dominance in the region, but for the early 1960s American presidents focused elsewhere. TWILIGHT OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE THE ELECTION OF JFK Follows Eisenhower's policy of Rapprochement with Egypt
BUT also attempts to appease Israeli demands Primarily focused on the Cuban Missile Crisis and events in South East Asia tHE ELECTION OF lbj Decline in US-Egyptian relations, LBJ dislikes Nasser.
Impact of the Yemeni Civil War.
Much more sympathetic to Israel and conservative Arab monarchies. Primarily, focused on the buildup of war in Vietnam and his Great Society reforms. SIX DAYS WAR AND lbj'S rEACTION War breaks out on June 5, 1967
Within six days, Israel had soundly defeated its opponents and gained new territory for the state of Israel Johnson’s Support for Israel?
On one hand tried to dissuade either party from the conflict, and tried to put together a Western plan for reopening the straits of Tiran.
But unwilling to commit troops to stop the conflict.
Israel’s attack and sinking of the American ship USS Liberty which killed 39 sailors.
LBJ’s resistance to the inclusion of an amendment on a UN ceasefire resolution proposed by the Soviets that would force Israel to withdraw from all occupied territories. Aftermath of the War?
Pyrrhic victory for the West
The Khartoum Declaration and the end of American Impartiality
The United States as the sole Western power AMERICA'S NEW ROLE IN THE MIDDLE EAST The Middle East both a region for Cold War conflict, but also more complex with the Israeli-Arab conflict
Strategic interests redefined: Israel as an American ally; importance of oil; and a commitment to conservative Arab monarchies UnITED NATIONS' PARTITION PLAN OF the PALESTINE MANDATE With increasing violence and costs, Britain decides to abandon the mandate of Palestine.
Decides to leave the problem to the United Nations, schedules withdrawal for May 15th, 1948.
Against the wishes of the Arab states, the UN adopts resolution 181 to partition the mandate of Palestine into two countries, and leaving Jerusalem to be internationally governed.