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BACK TO THE PAST: A timeline of press freedom

A timeline of press freedom from the declaration of Martial Law in 1972 up to 1981, when former President Ferdinand Marcos formally lifted Martial Law, to the eventual ouster of the Marcos dictatorship after People Power 1 in 1986
by

CMFR Philippines

on 21 September 2012

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Transcript of BACK TO THE PAST: A timeline of press freedom

1972 1973 1974 1976 1977 1978 1980 1981 1982 1983 1985 1986 September 21, 1972 Ferdinand Marcos signs Proclamation No. 1081 placing the country under martial law. September 22, 1972 Through Letter of Instruction no. 1, Marcos orders the closure of media establishments like Manila Times; Daily Mirror; Manila Chronicle; Manila Daily Bulletin; Philippine Daily Express; Philippines Herald; Philippine Free Press, Graphic; and the Nation as well as wire agencies. September 23, 1972 Media and opposition personalities known to be critical against Marcos are taken to military camps for investigation and detention. The series of interrogation of the media by the military intelligence begins. September 25, 1972 The Department of Public Information (DPI) issues Order No. 1 requiring all media publications to get a clearance from the DPI, and Order No. 2 which prohibits printers "from producing any form of publication for mass dissemination without permission from DPI." On this day, the Philippine Daily Express restarts publication. October 28, 1972 Marcos issues Presidential Decree (PD) 33 which "penalizes the printing, possession, and distribution of leaflets and other materials, and even graffiti which 'undermine the integrity of the government.'" November 2, 1972 Marcos issues Presidential Decree (PD) 33 which "penalizes the printing, possession, and distribution of leaflets and other materials, and even graffiti which 'undermine the integrity of the government.'" January 6, 1973 Marcos issues PD 90 penalizing rumormongering. Rumor, according to the decree, is "false news and information and gossip which undermines the staibility of government." May 11, 1973 Marcos issues PD 191 abolishing the Mass Media Council and creating the Media Advisory Council. The Foreign Correspondents Association of the Philippines is formed to protect the rights of journalists working for foreign-based news agencies. Like local journalists, foreign correspondents undergo censorship. In an interview with PJR Reports, former New York Times correspondent Alice Colet Villadolid says they go to Malacañang everyday to have their articles checked and approved by the Office of the Press Secretary. November 9, 1974 PD 576 abolishes the Media Advisory Council and the Bureau of Standards for Mass Media. But, on November 11 of the same year, Marcos authorized the organization of regulatory councils for print and broadcast media through PD 576-A. The Philippine Council for Print Media and the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas were formed. February 3, 1976 Marcos issues PD 885 forbidding the creation of "subversive" organizations. It included "preparing documents, leaflets and any other types of publication, and advising and counseling members of 'subversive' organizations" as among the punishable acts. The penalty for crimes against public order is increased through PD 942. January 28, 1977 Marcos issues PD 1079, a decree "Revising and consolidating all laws and decrees regulating the publication of judicial notices, advertisements for public biddings, notices of auction sales, and other similar notices." June 11, 1978 Marcos issues PD No. 1498 or the National Security Code. September 12, 1980 Marcos issues PD No. 1737 or the Public Order Act. This "empowered him to issue orders as he may deem necessary" in order to clamp down on "subversive publications or other media of mass communication" and "ban or regulate the holding of entertainment (or exhibitions) deemed 'detrimental to the national interest.'" Under this, he was also "empowered to order the preventive detention of persons and to prohibit the wearing of certain uniforms or emblems." October 8, 1980 Marcos issues PD No. 727 making "unlawful the malicious dissemination of false information." January 17, 1981 Marcos issues Proclamation No. 2045 "lifting" martial law. January 23, 1981 The government abolishes the print and broadcast media councils. The right to publish without having to obtain prior license was restored. March 9, 1982

Marcos issues Letter of Instruction No. 1211. Called the Presidential Commitment Order, the presidential issuance allows the "preventive detention" of persons for crimes mentioned in PD No. 2045. December 2, 1982

Marcos orders the seizure of We Forum after it came out with a series exposing his fake medals. The Presidential Commitment Order was replaced by Preventive Detention Action. Marcos issues PD 1875 repealing the Public Order Act, and PD 1876 repealing the National Security Code. July 21, 1983 July 25, 1983
Malacañang publishes PD 1835 or the Anti-Subversion Law of 1981, "increasing the penalties for membership in subversive organizations from life imprisonment to death." August 20, 1983
Women Writers in Media Now hold a consultation on press freedom. August 21, 1983

Former senator Benigno Aquino Jr. is assassinated upon his return to Manila. September 29, 1983
Properties of the Philippine Times were seized after it published a story implicating high government and military officials in the assassination of Ninoy Aquino. Mid-1985
The New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists announces that a total of 12 journalists were killed since 1984. The National Press Club, on the other hand, says that 19 were killed and one has been missing since 1976. February 7, 1986
Snap elections are held. February 22, 1986
People Power begins and ends peacefully after four days. February 25, 1986
Marcos flees to Hawaii. Corazon Aquino takes power. BACK TO THE PAST:
A timeline of press freedom Based on the PJR Reports, September 2007 issue Read the full report here:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/106440809/A-Timeline-of-Press-Freedom-PJRR-September-2007 January 17, 1981
Marcos issues Proclamation No. 2045 "lifting" martial law. January 23, 1981
The government abolishes the print and broadcast media councils. The right to publish without having to obtain prior license was restored.
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