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Timeline of Deaf History

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Kerstin Anderson

on 1 October 2018

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Transcript of Timeline of Deaf History

Timeline of Deaf History
345 - 550 A.D Early Christians
The Development of Deaf Education
Geronimo Cardano
The first to challenge Aristotle's belief.
He believed words were not necessary for the understanding of ideas.
Teaches his deaf son a written symbolic language.
Pedro Ponce de Leon
Benedictine monk
Taught the deaf sons of noblemen so they could inherit family fortune.
Taught speech sounds and written language
Juan Pablo Bonet
An advocate of early sign language
Writes the first dictionary of manual alphabetic signs for deaf people
1700's The French and the Deaf
Abbe Charles-Michel De L'Eppe
Establishes the first free public school for the Deaf.
1788 - publishes a dictionary of French Sign Language.
Instruction of Deaf Mute Persons using Methodical Signs
which advocated the use of natural signs,
Known as the "Father of the Deaf"
Succeeded by
Abbe Sicard
taught using object, sign, and
written word.
Martha's Vineyard
A small isolated island off the coast of Massachusetts.
25% of residents were deaf.
Martha's Vineyard Sign Language develops.
All town meetings were conducted in speech and sign.
It was considered
"Deaf Utopia"
1980's Historical Moments in Deafness
1985 - Cochlear Implants are approved by the FDA for people 18 and older.
1987 - Marlee Matlin wins the Oscar
1988 - Deaf President Now protest at Gallaudet
Students, faculty, staff, and alumni shut down the campus and protested
They wanted a Deaf president of the college
Gallaudet had hearing presidents up until 1988
A Quick Glance
1910 -1950: Deaf employment skyrockets thanks to WWI and WWII
1960's: William Stokoe discovers ASL is a real language and prints the first ASL dictionary.
1964: Robert Weitbrecht invents the TTY so deaf people may use the phone
1964: The Babbidge report concludes oral deaf education has been a failure.
1970's: Total Communication began
1000 B.C.
384-322 B.C.
The Greeks: Philosophers
Aristotle - People cannot learn without hearing.
Plato - Without speech, there is no outward sign of intelligence, so deaf people are unable to obtain ideas of language.
Greek was the perfect language. People who could not speak Greek were thought to be barbarians.
Deaf = Barbarian
Deaf children were disowned or often murdered.
The Romans
Deaf citizens were not allowed to marry.
They were assigned guardians to look after them.
Residential Schools
Mass exodus off of Martha's Vineyard.
80% French Sign Language, 20% Martha's Vineyard Sign Language
This triggered the development of the Deaf community.
Within 5 years, schools in NY, PA, KY, and OH opened.
1814 - 1817
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet
Was funded by Mason Cogswell to go to Europe and learn their methods for teaching Deaf children.
Went to England first and was turned away.
Met Abbe Sicard and Laruent Clerc in France
Studied with these men for 3 years and then returned with Clerc to America in 1817.
Family: Wife - Sophia Fowler, Sons - T. Galluadet Jr., Edward M. Gallaudet
Laurent Clerc
Born Deaf, first Deaf teacher of the Deaf.
Studied under Abbe De L'Eppe and later Sicard.
Was appointed as a master teacher after completing his schooling.
Agreed to come to America to help Gallaudet establish a school in America.
Taught for 50 years, 41 years in America.
The Connecticut Asylum for the Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons
Established in 1817 in Hartford, CT, first Deaf school in America.
Later became the American School for the Deaf.
Was a sign based school.
Began with only 7 students.
1850 - 1900's
More Residential Schools Open
1850 - there are 20 residential schools in the nation
1900 - Over 50 residential schools
After the Civil War - segregated schools for Black Deaf children.
Boys learned a trade
Girls became skilled in the trade of home making
1864 Gallaudet College
Established in 1864
Land granted by Abraham Lincoln
Edward Minor Gallaudet became superintendent (President)
Started as the National College for the Deaf and Dumb
Name changed in 1893
Students must be Deaf or HoH to attend as an undergrad
Now has a hearing undergrad program
Alexander Graham Bell
Had a hearing loss
Married a deaf woman
Believed that deaf people were a "defective variety of the human race."
Thought deaf people should be forbidden to marry eachother
Believed in oral education of deaf children
Invented the telephone
Adamantly against the use of signs
Founded 2 oral deaf schools in Wisconsin
Hebrew Law and the Talmud
Does not allow Deaf people to own property
Protects the Deaf from being cursed by others
Milan Conference of 1880
Pronounced oral methods superior to manual.
The US was the only country to oppose the vote.
This caused the founding of the National Association of the Deaf.
A mass retirement of manual instructors happened after the conference.
1892 Technology Advance
The first hearing aid was developed
It weighed several pounds
Needed to be placed on a desk
Was powered by 3 large volt batteries
Deaf Miss America Crowned
Heather Whitestone was crowned Miss Alabama in 1994
Then crowned Miss America in 1995
She was the first Deaf Miss America
St. Augustine - Deaf children are a result of God's anger towards their parents' sins.
Deaf adults were the objects of ridicule (court jesters).
They were committed to asylums because they were possessed by demons.
People born Deaf were not allowed to have faith since there were unable to "hear" the word of God.
Benedictine monks made a vow of silence because they believed this was wrong.
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