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Gendered Norms Presentation
Transcript of Gendered Norms Presentation
an inherently essential capability for life and well-being
an instrumental capability needed to secure other capabilities and functionings (education, employment, health, leisure, political participation, etc) THE LENS: Positive vs. Negative Understanding of Freedom Positive Negative substantive freedom unrestricted freedom 1)How do social and cultural norms and power relations within the household shape the daily mobility of women in the WB, specifically pertaining to desired but unrealized daily mobility and aspirations of mobility?
2)How can constraints to daily mobility caused by social norms and power relations within the household inform public policy and transportation planning in the WB and development initiatives in the MENA region aimed at enhancing women’s mobility and expanding their capabilities? Mobility - daily actual and unrealized potential movement of people within a specific space Research Questions listening in conversation, storytelling Experiences, perceptions, worldviews, desires, expectations Descriptive Case Studies Judgement or purposeful SAMPLING 17 paradigmatic cases Strategic Framework of Variables Location
Religious Affiliation Gendered Components of Honor contribute to low levels of mobility for women Safety concerns justify protective measures that limit women's mobility Modesty requirements and the norm of necessity constrain women's mobility FEAR of crime, violence, sexual harassment or shame can lead to self-imposed mobility restrictions or spatial exclusion Transport Planning is Gender Neutral Trade off: women chose to forgo personal aspirations of mobility when faced with a trade-off between their own desires and the desires and expectations of their families Gendered Norms and Roles contribute to low levels of mobility for women Transport Planning and Policy Clear and Predictable Public Transportation Routes and Schedules Extend and Increase Public Transportation Services in rural and underserved villages No fees for children Women Only Transportation Services Promote driving lessons among women Development Programming in MENA Region Engage in Dialogue Empowerment from Within Indigenous Strategies to Women’s Emancipation allow women to negotiate and bargain with oppressive institutions and structures that limit their valued capabilities on their own terms and in their own vocabulary help women perceive the limitations they have placed on themselves, recognize their entitlement to make decisions and play their essential role as agents of positive change Communities are more willing to engage in dialogue and negotiations about cultural norms when the question of merit or demerit of a certain cultural norm is raised from within the community itself challenging women's perceptions and understandings in order to help them to realize alternative modes of existence --> the most effective means of bringing about sustainable positive change Urban Planning Public Space Infrastructure Safety Bus and taxi stops
Public transportation terminals
Female designated spaces
Sidewalks and Pedestrian zones Security stations in public spaces
Adequate street lighting ASPIRATIONS OF MOBILITY Education Religious Affiliation Leisure Social Networks Employment Bodily Integrity Triangulation of Data Observations from Markets, Restaurants, Night Hot Spots, Public Transportation Hubs, Coffeeshops Gender disaggregated data on private vehicles drivers in West Bank cities 2 1 3 World Bank Quantitative Survey on Gendered Mobility 4 PNA Transport Sector Strategy SPATIAL EXCLUSION FEAR BUILT ENVIRONMENT 1 2 3 MALE ONLY ZONES 4 VEILING REGIME