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Microbiology Chapter 4: concept map

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sarah gallo

on 14 February 2013

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Transcript of Microbiology Chapter 4: concept map

Microbiology Chapter 4: Concept Map - "Before Nucleus"
- Simple structure
- No histones or organelles
- Composed of Bacteria and Archea Prokaryotes External Structures Internal Structures Bacterial Morphology Reproduce by:
Binary Fission
- division of cell into two, identical daughter cells Pili
-appendages used for gliding motility and the transfer of DNA from one cell to another
-may be the cause of bacterial resistance Fimbrae
-appendages used to attach to mucous membrane Glycocalyx
-gelatinous polymer which surrounds the cell;
usually a polysaccharide or peptide or both and can
be broken down for energy when in nutrient stressed enviroment Capsule:
made up of repeating units of organic chemicals;
prevents phagocytosis; prevents from identification and destruction by host; may develop capsules; used to swap DNA between bacteria Slime layer:
unorganized and loosely attached to cell;
sticky layer that promotes attachment to surfaces Cell wall
-semi rigid structure giving cell shape,
-its main function is to prevent osmosis lysis,
-made of peptidoglycan structure Peptidoglycan:
structural molecule of bacterial cell walls;
consists of NAM and NAG; linked by polypeptide chains there are two types of Glycocalyces .. Gram stains Gram positive:
- thick peptidoglycan,
-wall or lipo techoic acids,
-no outer membrane,
-no lipopolysaccharides,
-acid-fast mycolic acid,
-no porins,
-may regulate movement of cations,
-no O-polysaccharide,
-stain dark purple during Gram Stain procedure Teichoic Acids Wall Teichoic Acid:
link to peptidoglycan; connects the layers of the cell wall; through a few layers Lipoteichoic Acids:
links to plasma membrane; anchors wall to the membrane; though all layers Gram negative
-thin peptidoglycan,
-no techoic acids,
-contains an outer membrane,
-has lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, and phospholipids in outer membrane,
-protects from phagocytosis, complement,and antibiotics,
-contain porins which form channels through membrane;
-stains red during Gram Stain procedure O-polysaccharide:
antigen which sticks out of cell; used to identify
and distinguish bacteria; ONLY IN GRAM NEGATIVE CELL WALLS only in Gram negative Lipid A:
component of Gram negative
membrane; it is an endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide:
forms the outer membrane of Gram negative walls; molecule consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide Motility
-ability of an organism to move by itself motile structures Axial Filaments:
also called endoflagellum; in spirochetes
used for motility; anchored at one end of a cell
and rotation causes movement; corkscrew movement Flagella:
appendages attached to surface; rotates to run or tumble towards or away from stimuli; antigens useful for typing bacteria; do not have membranes on prokaryotic cells structure Hook:
at the surface of the cell;
attach to filament Filament:
visible portion; made up of flagellin, protein in helix configuration Basal Body:
anchors flagella to cell wall and
plasma membrane flagella arrangement Monotrichous:
have a single flagella Lophotrichous:
two or more flagella on one end of a cell Amphitrichous:
flagella at both ends of the cell Peritrichous:
flagella distributed all around the cell Plasma Membrane
-selectively permeable membrane enclosing cytoplasm,
-phospholipid bilayer contains peripheral, integral, and transmembrane proteins,
-no cholesterol,
- contains enzymes for ATP production,
-polar head = hydrophillic
-nonpolar fatty acid tails = hydrophobic attached to plasma membrane Nucleoid:
bacterial chromosome, containing genetic information; single, long, circular molecule of DNA Plasmid
-small, circular, double stranded molecule of DNA capable of replicating independent of the chromosome,
-not present in all bacteria,
-info for mating capability and antibiotic resistance,
-can make pili and mate with those who don't Ribosomes
-made up of two subunits,
-functions to synthesize proteins,
-smaller in prokaryotes Ribosomal subunits
in Prokaryotes 50S subunit 30S subunit Inclusion
-storage material held inside the cell,
-usually reserve deposits types of inclusion Sulfur Granules:
energy reserves Lipid Inclusions:
energy reserves Carboxysomes:
contains Ribulose 1, 5-diphosphate Polysaccharides Granules:
energy reserves Gas Vacuoles:
for bouyancy compensation;
protein covered cylinders Magnetosomes:
iron oxide inclusion that acts like a magnet;
produced by some gram negative cells;
destroys H2O2 Metachromatic Granules:
phosphate reserves Bacillus
-"rod-shaped"bacteria,
-includes:
- diplobacillus (2)
-streptobacillus (chain)
-and vibrio (curved rod) Coccus
-"spherical shaped" bacteria,
-includes:
-diplococcus (2)
-streptococcus (chain)
-staphylococcus (cluster)
-tetrad (4)
-and sarcina (8) Sprillium
- rigid, spiral shaped bacteria,
-movement aided by axial filaments
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