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FINAL PROJECT

Egypt
by

Taylor Ford

on 8 May 2014

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Transcript of FINAL PROJECT

Egypt
By: Taylor Ford P.2
Language
A
n
c
i
e
n
t
thanks be to God.... mash'allah
My name is.... ismi
How are you.... kef halak
Goodbye.... Salam
Hello.... Ahlan wa sahlan
if God wills it.... insha'allah
Arabic Language- It reads right to left
r
e
a
d
s

U
p
a
n
d

d
o
w
n
and Alphabet
http://art-zoo.tripod.com/artgallery/id14.html
Below: Hieroglyphic alphabet
Arabic Alphabet
www.islam101.com
Currency
Egyptian Pound
1 EGP = $0.16 USD
The egyptian pound does reflect the Egyptian culture because it has famous landmarks, famous and important people, and Egyptian architecture on it, much like we do in the U.S.
www.banknotes.com
write a caption!
Flag
Egypt's flag was adopted October 4, 1984
The flag was chosen to symbolize the overthrow of the monarchy in 1952.
Black means oppression
White
means replaced with a bright future
Red
means to Overcome bloody struggle
Economy
Since January 2011, the economy is decreasing because the public is at unrest with the government. It's predicted to stay at a low point through 2012. Tourism, manufacturing, and construction are hardest hit parts of the economy.
Natural Resources:
Zinc
Lead
Talc
Limestone
Iron ore
Natural Gas
Petroleum
Composition of GDP:
Services- 47.6%
Industry- 37.6% (textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
Schooling effects culture because the government is trying to get the literacy rate higher so more people can get jobs. By having the schooling free it makes it a lot easier for some families’ children to get a good educations and eventually good jobs. On the other hand, if the children don’t do their work or don’t even care about school then the government is just wasting their money.
GDP is 231.9 billion
Other- 0.3%
Exports to Italy, India, Saudi Arabia, US, Turkey, Spain, France
Budget:
Revenue- 44.69 billion
Expenditures- 67.7 billion
Demographics
72% of the whole population is literate (10+ can read and write)
Since their life expectancy is high, it tells us that they have pretty good technology and medicine for when people get sick. Also, the literacy rate is pretty high also it means that they care about schooling their children so they can get their economy back up by getting people better jobs.
Life expectancy at birth- 79 years
Male- 24.3 yrs
Female- 24.9 yrs
Median age:
Unemployment (15-24 yrs)- 24.8%
Population- 83,688,164 people
Education
12 years long
Sunday-Thursday
Friday is day of rest for Muslims
Education in Egypt is free in government run schools
Each class has 2 teachers, an additional helper, and a music teacher
No more that 45 students in a class
Homework is discouraged in preschool
Sudents must attend
Exam is taken at end of 6th year to test basic knowledge
Separated by gender
Sudents must attend
Exam is taken at the end of the 9th year to see which school they move on to
Separated by gender
Exam taken in the last 2 years to see which college they get admittance to
Not separated by sex
Affordable only for middle and upper class
Primary school 6 years
Preparatory School 3 years
Secondary School 3 years
Private schools
Agriculture- 14.5% (cotton, rice, corn, water buffalo, wheat, beans, fruit, cattle, vegetables, sheep, goats)
Religion
Fridays are the day of rest
90% Muslim (mostly sunni)
Egyptians believe Muhammad is the final of the prophets
9% Coptic
1% Christian
Government controls Islam; appoints muslim leaders
Pray 5 times a day
Religion guides laws, business relations, and customs, dress, diets, and praying
They follow the five pillars: Testimony of faith, daily prayer, giving alms, fasting during Ramadan, and the pilgrimage to Mecca.
the Qu'ran is their holy book/scripture
www.religionrt.com
Public prayer in Egypt
Islamic Masque in Egypt
www.islamizationwatch.blogspot.com
Holidays
August 1st-
like a harvest festival, they are supposed to make a wonderful meal; eggs mean renewal of life, lettuce means hopeful, fish mean fertility and welfare
Ramadan
Coptic-Christian Christmas
Egyptian New Year
Jan. 6/7-
It's just like the american Christmas, where they celebrate Jesus' birth.
they do not eat during the day and eat small meals and night w/ family and friends- strengthens community and families
The day after the Lunar Confirmation-
Day after Easter (On a Monday)-
Sham El Nessim
Ramadan Flags
www.patheos.com
New Year fireworks in Egypt
www.prlog.org
umdarabic.blogspot.com
Decorated eggs for Sham El Nessim
Restaurants- McDonalds, KFC, Arby’s, Subway, Pizza Hut, Chili’s, and TGIFriday’s
Sweetened coffee and tea are favorite drinks
They also drink goats milk, sheep milk, and buffalo milk
More diverse diet
Better quality food
Middle and Upper Class People:
Usually eggs, bread and tea, and fruit
Main meal of the day
Eaten about two or three o’clock
Nine or ten o’clock
It's usually small mezze (appetizers) dishes or leftover food from lunch
LIGHT BREAKFAST:
Basic diet: bread, ful/fool (broad beans)
Typical evening meal they dip bread into vegetable stew
Government-run stores give out meat, cheese, and eggs at controlled prices
Koushari, a vegetarian dish, combines lentils, chick peas, macaroni, and rice in a tomato sauce subtly flavored with onions and
garlic. It is always accompanied
by pita bread.
They do not eat pork
Food and Drinks
LUNCH:
SUPPER:
Villagers and Poor City People:
Often run out quickly
www.stravaganzastravaganza.blogspot.com
Koushari
Family
ANCIENT:
Mom, dad, many children (many children because
they died before they matured)
Girls got married around 15-19 years
Boys lived at home even after they are married
Poor family lived in one room of a house with other families living in other rooms
Some brothers and sisters got married (it was okay to society)
Men are responsible for putting food on the table and financing
Women are responsible for household chores (along with the children) and to raise the kids.
Women rarely leaves the house
Usually just nuclear family but traditionally is extended
Women have more rights than they used to so now they leave the house way more often and do a lot more to help the family.
Men are still supposed to provide most of the money
MODERN:
Model of ancient Egypt family
http://www.aldokkan.com/society/family.htm
Ancient Egyptian House
studentreader.com
Music
National Anthem is “Bilady, Bilady,
Bilady,” which means "my homeland, my
homeland, my homeland."
Most popular singer of the 1900s was Um kelthum- blended Eatern music and Western music into her songs
They enjoy traditional/classical
as well as modern Egyptian
and Western
Government
This government is unstable. The current president wants to create a whole new constitution that protects civil rights but entails islamic law in it. He shot down a constitutional law that limited the president's power and appointed many muslim officials and very few women and christians, so the people have begun to worry. The people are revolting the presidency and have 2 main things they want him to do: revocate the Nov. 22 decree that gave him more power and delay the Dec. 15 referendum. Some people have a third one: for him to LEAVE.
Judicial:
Advisory Council:
Chief of state- President Muhammad Mursi, Vice P.- Mohamed Mekky
Head of government- Prime Minister Hisham Qandil
Independent on Feb. 28, 1922
Republic
Supreme constitutional court
Legislative:
180 members chosen by popular vote, 90 chose by the president; 6yr term, 1/2 at a time
498 people chosen by popular vote, 10 by president, and 64 seats are reserved for women; 5yr term
People’s Assembly-
Egyptians like to watch tv, although many can't afford a television
Like watching sports, especially soccer
Egypt is famous for its soap operas
Broadcasts of famous singers’ concerts
The film industry is big in Egypt
The films have made as many starts as here in the U.S.
Egypt makes between 60 and 100 movies a year
They enjoy soccer as a leisure
activity
They enjoy socializing at the
suq (outdoor marketplace)
Entertainment
Egyptian soccer
articles.latimes.com
One of the many Egyptian soap operas
gazelledusahara.wordpress.com
Dress
Middle and upper class people wear clothes similar to the U.S. and Europe
Lower class and villagers wear more traditional things
rare to see women with shirtsleeves above the elbow
skirts and dresses are more common than pants
Urban:
Traditional and newer western clothes
Rural:
Traditional
Many women wear the hijab
men usually wear turban-like items called an emma
men also wear a galabiyya- long robe thats pale blue or white
beyondretro.com
exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu
Traditional
Geography
North Africa
North-flowing Nile River
1000 miles long
from Sudan to Cairo
Splits just north of Cairo into delta
Nile valley and Nile delta
Most of farmland
Almost all Egyptians live in the valley/delta
Aswan High dam gives water for irrigation
Prevents a lot of damage when the Nile floods
Delta
150 miles at its base
100 miles from north to south
Western Desert
2/3 of Egypt's total area
Eastern Desert
Rises eastward from the Nile
East of Suez canal and gulf of Suez
Sinai peninsula
Flat, sandy coastal plain in north
Limestone plateau in central area
Mountains in the south
Valuable oil deposits
Sandy plateau with ridges, basins, and depressions
50 to 80 miles
turns into rocky hills and deep valleys (wadis)
Impossible to cultivate
Mostly
uninhabited
Highest point- Jabal Katrinah 8651 above sea level
Lowest point-Qattara Depression 436 feet below sea level
386,662 sq. mi total area
995,450sq. km is land
6,000 sq. km is water
worldatlas.com
Egypt political map
nationsonline.org
Climate
Desert:
Because a lot of the country is desert,
it influences the way people dress. It also shows that they need to use the Nile
River for irrigation because they
get very little rainfall.
Hot/dry summers
Moderate winters
12 hours of sunlight
average high of 108 degrees in some areas
May to October
8-10 hours of sunlight
November to April
Average low of 40 degrees
High of 65 in Cairo
January Temperatures
July Temperatures
High of 96 in Cairo
High of 106 in Aswan
In April a hot windstorm called khamsin blows through Egypt
can raise temps 68 degrees higher
damages crops
Average rain- 0in in desert, to 8in in the Nile delta
High of 74 in Aswan
Technology
TOTAL POPULATION: 83,688,164 people
70 radio stations
This tells us that almost everyone has a cell phone
because the numbers are very close. It also says that
only some of the population have televisions and
a little bit more people use
internet.
state-run t.v with 2 national and 6 regional networks
20.136 million internet users
83.25 million cell phones
8.714 million main line televisions
Architecture
Gestures
DON’T sit with your legs crossed- it's considered rude to show bottoms of your feet.
Most gestures and greetings are very elaborate
because egyptians think personal relations are important
Friends of the same gender usually kiss each other on the cheek and shake their hands
DON’T back away when you're talking to someone, they talk closer than they do in the US so they consider it rude.
A man and women greet each other by
shaking hands but the woman has to extend
their hand first
ifex.org
bragg.com
Current Issues
One of Egypt's biggest issues is
recovering from the 2011 revolution. The Mubarak
presidency was ended when he resigned from office, and the new
elected president is M. Morsi. Many people fear he will
be a lot like Mubarak because he has tried to gain more power and has hired many muslim members. These events have caused tons of people to protest and there have been violent revolts as well. Although the economy has remained steady, the country is not doing as well as it did.
Egypt's economy is not getting worse, but it's not getting any better. The country's sources of income, like gas and petroleum exports, have either stayed the same or even gotten bigger, with the exception of tourism. The economic activity has been at a standstill for a while now because it's not making much profit; the growth was 7percent in 2010 but is now less than 2 percent. Also, the unemployment rate is 3 percent higher than 2010. Hopefully, Egypt can get
back on it's feet soon so they can
start making money again.
One large room in front
Usually lived in apartments because most people can't afford to buy a freestanding house because space is very limited
Modern Housing and Architecture
Pyramids
building was done without mortar- had to be extremely precise
Used stone: granite, limestone, sandstone
Ancient:
Usually incorporates curves in the roofs, windows and/or doorways
chicagotribune.com
en.wikipedia.org
Trivia
If the Great Pyramid were chopped into 12-inch cubes, there would be enough cubes to circle the moon almost three times.
Pharaoh Pepi II (2246-2152 B.C.) had the
longest reign in history—94 years. He
became Egypt’s king when he was
only 6 years old.
Dates back to 3200 B.C.
Fly swatters made from giraffe tails were a popular fashion item in ancient Egypt.
Only 2.92% of the land is arable
Egyptians are typically patient and humorous
Global Contributions
Egypt has contributed a lot to society. Being one of the oldest civilizations, they have had time to invent many things like boats, ink, and paper and used the first casts and hospitals.
The ancient Egyptian pyramids have inspired many artists to create beautiful works of art. They also showed how smart they were when they built the pyramids because everything
was exactly right: a 51 degree angle, the base
was perfectly square and the sides
always had the same area.
ehow.com
casepaper.com
Ink
Papyrus paper
Art
Ancient Art:
Reflected everyday lives; temple drawings of jewelry, homes, animals, people, glass boxes
Wall and pillar drawings
Fishing, baking, housework, used to help deceased “live forever” by drawing instructions for the afterlife,
Side view is most common
Used bright colors of orange, red, blue, and white-paint made from minerals
brushes were fibrous sticks with frayed ends
Sculptors were very popular
Statues of kings, queens, gods, goddesses, animals, and scribes were made
Modern Art:
Neo-Pharaonic-uses modern techniques and influences
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/egma/hd_egma.htm
Modern Art
flickr.com
Ancient Art
Also use surrealism which
is paining or drawing very
realistic
History
10.) In June 2012 elections, the 1st civilian became president
1.) Earliest recorded dynasty was 3000BC
2.) 325BC Egypt was under the control of the Persian Empire
3.) 332BC Alexander the Great brought Greek culture and rules to Egypt
4.) 31AD Roman Empire controlled Egypt
5.) 642AD Muslim invasion brought a new invader to power
6.) 1922 Egypt gained independence
7.) Lost Sinai Peninsula 1967
8.) Regained the Sinai Peninsula in 1979
9.) 1st Arab nation to sign a peace treaty with Israel 1979
(military government/control -->>civilian government)
thewire.org.au
nowtheendbegins.com
10.)
9.)
encyclopediaegypt.com
4.)
Bibliography
The World Book Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. Chicago: World Book, 2007. Print.
"Egypt News — Revolution and Aftermath." Egypt News — Revolution and Aftermath. N.p., 27 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. <http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/egypt/index.html>.
Rose, Christopher. "Life in Modern Cairo." Life in Modern Cairo. N.p., 1995. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://www.laits.utexas.edu/cairo/modern/life/life.html>.
"Ancient Egyptian Families." - Daily Life in Ancient Egypt. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Dec. 2012.
<http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/people/family.htm>
"99 Interesting Facts About . . ." 99 Interesting Facts about Egypt. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Dec. 2012. <http://facts.randomhistory.com/interesting-facts-about-egypt.html>.
"Egypt- Educational System, Overview." N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012.
<http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/411/Egypt-EDUCATIONAL-SYSTEM-OVERVIEW.html>.
"Egypt: Art and Architecture." Egypt: Art and Architecture. St. Petersburg Times, n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2012.
<http://www2.sptimes.com/Egypt/EgyptCredit.4.4.html>.
"Egypt Holidays: اجازات مصر." Egypt Holidays: اجازات مصر. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. <http://www.asfory.com/egypt_holidays_calendar.html#Christmas>.
"CURRENCY CONVERTER WIDGET." XE. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. <http://www.xe.com/ucc/convert.cgi>.
"G L O B a L a L L I a N C E." G L O B a L a L L I a N C E. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2012. <http://www.globalalliancesmet.org/egypt_education.htm>.
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