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Copy of Copy of Roaring 20s

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R. Dunn

on 1 December 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Roaring 20s

New Ways to Pay!
Henry Ford and the Model T
American culture underwent a rapid and radical change in the 1920s. Signs of this change were everywhere-in the music and fashions of the day, in the habits and pastimes of Americans, in art and literature of the country's most creative minds. Large population shifts and new technologies transformed the nation from rural to urban and traditional to modern.
Henry Ford introduced the Model T in 1908
Ford uses an assembly line production system in which an item being built moves along a conveyor belt to various work stations.
Productivity of automobiles increased by 60% during the 1920s!
Explosion of new products, new experiences and forms of mass production
New manufacturing processes made products cost efficient and accessible to the middle class
Introduction of new electrical appliances (Fridges, vacuums, radios)
New Roles For Women
A New Economic Era!
The New Consumer
The 1920s introduced the idea of installment buying (paying for an item over time in small payments)
Consumers would buy goods on credit, by borrowing money
Buy now, pay later
Advertising gave wide exposure to consumer products
Companies advertised through magazines and the radio

The increase in demand for cars also caused an increased demand all of the materials needed to create cars (steel, rubber, glass and all other automobile materials)
Introduced many new jobs as repair shops, filling stations, motels and restaurants began popping up all over the U.S.
Accessibility of cars made it easier for people to travel farther to and from work, and resulted in the growth of suburbs
Freedom to travel also gave birth to a new tourist industry in the U.S.
New Opportunities
After gaining the right to vote with the
19th amendment
women began getting elected to state and local offices
The economic boom that occurred in the 1920s presented many more job opportunities for women
The number of women attending college greatly increased
New Family Roles
The basic rules that defined proper female behavior was beginning to change
The primary role of women within American society was still to care for the home and their children
However, more women sought a greater sense of equality in their relationships with men
The Flapper
The term flapper refers to young women in the 1920s who defied traditional ideas of proper dress and behavior, and suggested a certain lifestyle of great independence and freedom
Flappers shocked society by chopping off their hair, raising their hemlines, wearing makeup, smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol and go dancing in night clubs
Harding and Coolidge Presidencies
Cars Crash Into the Economy!
Warren G. Harding
Harding felt U.S. should return to
Normalcy- return to peace and calm.
After the horrors of WWI, violent labor conflicts and fears of Communist revolution..normalcy sounded good to many Americans
laws support "Big Business" but not regulate it.
To help achieve his pro-business goal, Harding sought to reduce taxes on the wealthiest Americans
Isolation from foreign conflicts (especially Europe)
Calvin Coolidge
Scandal and Sudden Death
The end of Harding's presidency was riddled by scandal
The worst scandal involved Harding's Secretary of Interior, Albert Fall
Teapot Dome scandal- Fall had accepted bribes in return for allowing oil companies to drill federal oil reserves on a piece of federal land
Shortly after the Teapot Dome Scandal, Harding collapsed while giving a speech in Seattle and died later that night
After Harding's death Calvin Coolidge became the thirtieth President of the United States
Coolidge had a reputation for being honest which helped him deal with the scandals that had soured Harding's presidency
Coolidge's presidency was characterized by his unshakable faith in the power of business and industry
Coolidge felt that the role of government should be strictly limited
He also believed in lowering taxes and reducing the federal budget
What Lead to Prohibition?
To many people alcohol was seen as a destructive force in families and marriages
Women played a strong role in bringing about prohibition with the emergence of groups like the
Woman's Christian Temperance Union led by Frances Willard

Steps to Prohibition
18th Amendment
made it illegal to manufacture, transport or sell alcohol in the U.S. and was enacted into a law as the National Prohibition Act
of 1920
The Rise of Organized Crime
Prohibition gave rise to huge smuggling, bootlegging operations, and organized crime
Illegal bars that served alcohol called speakeasies were established across America
People who smuggled liquor into the U.S. through seaports and from Canada,or made it on their own became know as bootleggers

Bootleggers made a fortune (Kennedy's) through illegally distributing alcohol and used intimidation and/or bribery to get ride enforcement that threatened them
The most notorious bootlegger of the Prohibition-era was Chicago's Al Capone
The Harlem Renaissance
The Great Migration
Segregation laws, racial violence and little economic opportunity made life in the South very difficult for African Americans
The outbreak of WWI caused a sudden demand for war equipment and supplies, and employers in northern factories eagerly looked to the south for a new supply of workers
These lead to a mass migration of African Americans to the major cities in the north known as the Great Migration
New York City was one of the northern cities that African Americans moved to in large numbers
To many African Americans it was their first experience living outside of the south and felt a strong sense of racial pride and identity
Harlem became the center of a great African American arts movement in the U.S. that became known as the Harlem Renaissance
Harlem was a vital center for jazz
Jazz blended blended several different musical forms from the lower south
People flocked to Harlem to hear famous musicians like Paul Robeson, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Bessie Smith
Art and Literature
African American artists also won fame and recognition during the Harlem Renaissance
They focused on the much of their work on the experiences of African Americans
Famous artists included William H. Johnson, Aaron Douglas, and Jacob Lawrence
A great number of African American artists poets and writers burst onto the scene during the Harlem Renaissance
A common theme amongst these writers was defiance or resistance in the face of white prejudice
One of the most famous writers of the Harlem Renaissance was Langston Hughes
Hughes wrote of black defiance, but also wrote of hope as well
Fundamentalism vs. Modernism
Rise of Fundamentalists
The values of many urban Americans of the 1920s greatly varied from the traditional values of the rural Americans
The uncertainty that accompanied the changing times caused many Americans to turn to religion
Many of these beliefs were based on literal interpretations of the bible which was known as fundamentalism
One of the most popular fundamentalists was former baseball player and ordained minister Billy Sunday
Conflicts Over Values
As fundamentalism gained strength in the 1920s, it came into sharper conflict with the teachings of modern science, particularly Darwin's theory of evolution
Fundamentalists worked hard to ensure that evolution wasn't taught in public schools, and were successful in several states
One of these states was Tennessee, where a 1925 law made it a crime to teach evolution to students
The Scopes Trial
A teacher in Tennessee by name of John Scopes agreed to violate the law and have himself arrested
The case went to trial and gained national attention and was a clear reflection of the tremendous culture clash that was occurring during the 1920s
Mass Entertainment
and Leisure Time

The Radio
One of the driving forces behind the emergence of the new American popular culture was the radio
The radio made it so Americans across the country could hear the same news and music, and created a shared culture that included a growing number of Americans
Movies were another form of mass entertainment that exploded in popularity during the 1920s
Prior to the 20s most movies were very short and simple, but by 1928 many advanced film making techniques had been created
Films with sound were introduced for the first time in 1928
In 1929 filmmaker
Walt Disney introduced America to a new kind of movie star in the film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon character named Mickey Mouse

An Era of Heroes
The freedom to travel and new shared experiences brought about by the radio and movies gave birth to the American celebrity

Charles Lindbergh was the first person to complete a non-stop flight across the Atlantic.

Glenn Curtiss became the father of Naval Aviation.
The radio propelled sports into a whole new as millions of Americans tuned into broadcasts of ballgames and prize fights
21 st Ammendment
Repeal of 18th Amendment

Duke Ellington
aka "The Duke"
Doo Wop Doo Wop Doo Wop

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