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BTEC Level 3 Fibre Types & Muscular Contraction

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Paul McIntosh

on 4 January 2017

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Transcript of BTEC Level 3 Fibre Types & Muscular Contraction

FTG (Type 2b)
ST (Type 1)
FOG Type 2a
Explain what determines how the muscle fibres respond?

Think structure: Colour, size, no of capilliaries, mitochondria, concentration myoglobin & glycogen stores?

Think function: Contractile speed/strength, resistance to fatigue, aerobic/anaerobic capacity?
Lesson tweet:

1. How does structure & function of muscle fibre types relate to physical activity?
1.(mixed)people with a mix of muscle fibre types may perform successfully in both aerobic and anaerobic activity or team games (with varying intensities of activity)Type 1,

2a, 2b (for mix) /
examples of team games of varying intensities

Type 1)People with high/higher proportion of slow twitch or Type 1 or SO fibres most likely to perform successfully in aerobic or endurance activities or marathon running or low intensity, long duration activitiesexamples of any endurance events that show performer is working aerobically /
high resistance to fatigue

3.(fast)People with high/higher proportion of fast twitch or Type 2 or FG or FOG fibres most likely to perform successfully in anaerobic or explosive events or long jump or sprinting or throwing events or high intensity, short duration activities examples of any explosive events that show performer is working anaerobically /low resistance to fatigue
1.small / red
2. many mitochondria
3. high density of myoglobin
4. high density of capillaries
5. low glycogen stores / low PC stores
6. high density of aerobic enzymes
In 3's each of you take a muscle fibre type.
1. Type 1: Slow twitch
2. Type 2a: FOG (Fast Oxidative Glycolytic)
3. Type 2b: FTG (Fast Twitch Glycolytic)

Remember for each think
(what they look like) and then
(what they do)
Use the QR code to help you.

Describe the different types of muscular contraction SO THAT we can analyse the role of antagonistic muscle pairs?
Isometric: When a muscle contracts , but then remains
the same length and there is no movement.
Concentric when a muscle shortens as it contracts
Eccentric when a muscle lengthens.
In pairs you must come up with the following:
Two sporting example using each of the antagonistic pairs.
Identify the specific muscle groups involved.
Identify the types of muscular contraction that is seen.
Hashtag titles?
3. Best 3 combined
Fibre Types
Facts Plenary!
Now pool you questions together as a group.
Can you improve the quality of your questions?
Maybe change some closed ones into open?

Finally what would be your top 3 questions which would cover effect of warm-up and cool down?
Present your findings!

Out of 3 what score would you give yourself on your knowledge of firstly muscle fibres:
Think structure: Colour, size, no of capilliaries, mitochondria, concentration myoglobin & glycogen stores?

Think function: Contractile speed/strength, resistance to fatigue, aerobic/anaerobic capacity?

Then do the same for anatagonistic pairs:
Concentric, eccentric movement. Agonist/antagonist, articulating bones, joint types.

Finally rate yourself out of 3 on your knowledge of effect of warm-up and cool down on skeletal muscle.
20 word challenge:
What is today's lesson all about?

3 expert groups for each muscle fibre type
biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoids, pectoralis major, rectus abdominis, rectus femoris,, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, erector spinae, trapezius, latissimus dorsi, obliques, gluteus maximus, wrist flexors, wrist extensors.
How many anatagonistic pairs can you name?
Cardiac/Skeletal/Smooth Muscle.

automatic, smooth, heart, striated, blood vessels, never rests,
most common, intestines, not controlled consciously

3,4,5 facts plenary.
Identify the location of major muscles, the way they work together and the different types of muscles SO THAT we can understand the function of the muscular system
For the merit criteria (M1), you have to go into a lot more detail and link some of your facts together and begin to explain them.

Explain how skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle are different. Why are their characteristics necessary for them to work?

Explain how at least 3 groups of antagonistic pairs work together and link in to your examples the different types of joint movement and muscular contraction that occurs.

Explain how and why muscle fibre types help and athlete becomes successful at certain types of sports
For your distinction on D1:
Choose an 3 athletes from 3 different sports.
Describe the major muscles he/she would use. How would they train them?
Analyse each sporting action they would do along with joint movement and muscular contraction.
Analyse their pre-dominant fibre type saying how the structure and function helps them and why.
Biceps brachii/.........................
................................/wrist extensors
Rectus femoris/...............................
................................./gluteus maximus
Tibialis anterior/....................................
Anterior deltoid/..................................
Medial deltoid/.....................................
Fixator: 'A muscle that stabilises one part of the body while another causes movement. It stabilises the origin of the agonist.

Synergist: The synergist in a movement is the muscle(s) that stabilises a joint around which movement is occurring, which in turn helps the agonist function effectively.
With the bicep curl which joint are we talking about here?
In the bicep curl the synergist muscles are the brachioradialis and brachialis which assist the biceps to create the movement and stabilise the elbow joint.
Describe the structure of the main fibre type seen in endurance athletes?
Explain how muscle fibre types can influence your success in different types of sporting situations.
Consider those with a high % of type 1, those with a high % of type 2 and those with a mix of fibre types.
(6 marks)
Nervous Control Of Muscle Contraction:
'All or none law'

* The 'action potential' is the message sent from the brain down the nervous system which carries the message to the muscle for it to contract.
* The action potential must reach a threshold charge to cause all of the muscle fibres to contract at the same time with maximum force.
* If it doesn't reach the threshold charge, none of the muscle fibres will contract.
1. Which muscle fibre type is suited to endurance sports?
2. Which muscle fibre type would be perfect for a 400m runner?
3. Which muscle fibre type would be suited to a 100m runner?
4. What colour are Type 1 muscle fibres?
5. How would you describe the size of Type 2B muscle fibres?
6. Which muscle fibre type is the most resistant to fatigue?
7. Which muscle fibre type contracts with the greatest force?
8. What do myoglobin store in the muscles which is a great help to Type 1 muscle fibres?
9. Mitochondria are site of aerobic respiration. Which fibre type has lots of these?
10. What types of sports or athletic events are suited to a mix of fibre types?
Understand how the muscular system responds to exercise SO THAT we can explain the effects on the body in the short and long term.
Increased Blood Supply
Increased Muscle Temperature
Increased Muscle Pliability
Production Of Lactate
Micro muscle tears
Delayed Onset Of
Muscle Soreness
For your area:
1. Describe what is happening.
2. Why does it happen?
3. What are the effects on the body?
Long term adaptations of the muscular system to exercise
Increased tendon strength
Increase in size & number of mitochondria
Increase in myoglobin stores
Increased stores of glycogen
Increased tolerance to lactic acid
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